Desarrollo Económico Urbano


THE GLOBAL CITY : NEW YORK, LONDON, TOKYO
SASKIA SASSEN
1991
This classic work chronicles how New York, London, and Tokyo became command centers for the global economy and in the process underwent a series of massive and parallel changes. What distinguishes Sassen’s theoretical framework is the emphasis on the formation of cross-border dynamics through which these cities and the growing number of other global cities begin to form strategic transnational networks. All the core data in this new edition have been updated, while the preface and epilogue discuss the relevant trends in globalization since the book originally came out in 1991.
Tomado de: http://press.princeton.edu/titles/6943.html

JUSTICE, EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY: SHOULD PLACES HELP ONE ANOTHER TO DEVELOP?
MICHAEL STORPER
2011
What is a ‘just’ or ‘equitable’ territorial distribution of resources or economic and social development? As in the other social sciences, the normative dimensions of territorial development – of what would constitute ‘just’ cities, regions and global patterns of development – cover the process of resource creation and allocation, as well as the geographical (place) and interpersonal (people) outcomes of such processes. A geographical approach to justice and equity must consider the interaction of place distributions and people distributions of income and opportunity. Place and people distributions may conflict with one another. Moreover, different such distributions have different impacts on economic efficiency and thus on aggregate output. This article confronts theories of justice with results in economic geography about the territorial basis of economic efficiency. It then opens up a research agenda on the normative bases of inter-territorial relations and on the possible criteria for redistribution of development resources among territories.

MÁS ALLÁ DE LAS REFORMAS: DINÁMICA ESTRUCTURAL Y VULNERABILIDAD MACROECONÓMICA
MÁS ALLÁ DE LAS REFORMAS: DINÁMICA ESTRUCTURAL Y VULNERABILIDAD MACROECONÓMICA JOSÉ ANTONIO OCAMPO
2005
El libro, “Más allá de las reformas”, refleja la importancia de trascender el debate sobre la necesidad de una “primera” o “segunda” generación de reformas, para entender otras fuerzas que en general, se han pasado por alto en el debate acerca de las reformas de mercado. Tomar en cuenta esta fuerza es fundamental para poder superar el decepcionante desempeño económico que ha caracterizado a muchos países en el contexto de la liberalización económica. El libro se divide en dos partes. La primera está dedicada al crecimiento económico a largo plazo y a los patrones de desarrollo, y la segunda a la vulnerabilidad, macroeconómica y sus efectos sociales.

LAS CIUDADES COLOMBIANAS Y SUS ATRACTIVOS
ADOLFO MEISEL ROCA, GERSON JAVIER PÉREZ V
La dinámica de expansión territorial y poblacional que han venido presentando las ciudades Colombianas en las últimas décadas, extendiendo cada vez más los límites de sus fronteras, hace necesario pensar no solamente en la planeación urbana de las ciudades sino también en la necesidad de adoptar medidas que vayan en armonía con el mejoramiento del bienestar y la calidad de vida de los habitantes de las ciudades.
Los resultados obtenidos a lo largo de este documento dejan ver una estructura urbana desarticulada y con grandes y crecientes diferencias en términos económicos y de desarrollo. Lo anterior evidencia, la necesidad de políticas que se encaminen al desarrollo de regiones que brinden la oportunidad de disfrutar espacios, escenarios, óptimos que contribuyen a un mayor desarrollo y bienestar para sus habitantes y visitantes.

AGLOMERACIÓN Y CONDICIONES DE VIDA EN BOGOTÁ
DNP

Aglomeración y condiciones de vida en Bogotá,” hace una reflexión sobre lo que está sucediendo alrededor de Bogotá, que es a su vez un llamado al gobierno nacional para que le preste atención al ordenamiento territorial, y a la definición de criterios que permitan una mejor distribución de los asentamientos humanos.
La publicación también discute el significado del ingreso disponible y examina los principales indicadores relacionados con las condiciones de vida. “Al respecto concluye, que por ahora es mejor vivir en la gran ciudad. Con excepción de Bucaramanga, los indicadores sociales (pobreza y distribución del ingreso) son mejores en Bogotá que en el resto del país. La capital continúa siendo una ciudad atractiva”, se precisa en el libro.
Así mismo hace un análisis sobre los avalúos, la estratificación, los precios del suelo y la segregación. La estratificación, explica el libro, “se ha convertido en un mecanismo perverso de segregación y se debería eliminar como instrumento de política pública. En lugar de tener como referencia el estrato, las decisiones de política pública deberían guiarse por el avalúo, que en Bogotá se ha actualizado de manera sistemática y se acerca bastante al precio comercial”.
Este libro es el primero de una serie de publicaciones de la colección “Bogotá Humana” de la Secretaría Distrital de Planeación, producto del estudio de datos producidos en Bogotá y utilizados para la toma de decisiones en política pública y puesto a disposición para consulta ciudadana.
Tomado de: http://www.sdp.gov.co/portal/page/portal/PortalSDP/Noticias2014/Libro_Aglomeracion_y_condiciones_de_vida_en_Bogota

 

BASES DE LA POLÍTICA PÚBLICA DE DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO DE LA CIUDAD
LUIS AGUILAR, JORGE GONZALEZ
2010
La Secretaría Distrital de Desarrollo Económico (Sdde) tiene el propósito de formular las Bases de la Política Pública de Desarrollo Económico de la Ciudad. Este documento se inscribe en ese proceso. Al pensar los objetivos de la Sdde se destacan dos aspectos: el primero tiene que ver con el significado de las bases de la política pública (inspiradas en estos tres principios: i. El territorio y la gestión urbana, ii. Negocios privados rentables pero que favorezcan la inclusión, iii. Ciudad – región), y el segundo con el de desarrollo económico de la ciudad (con dos connotaciones: i. el desarrollo como libertad, ii. La potencialidad de la aglomeración para alcanzar el desarrollo).
El presente trabajo se divide en tres partes. La primera examina la relación entre la renta del suelo y la financiación de los servicios de la ciudad. La segunda, se refiere a la productividad y la competitividad. La tercera introduce algunas consideraciones sobre la ciudad región.

THE GROWTH OF CITIES
GILLES DURANTON, DIEGO PUGA
2013
Why do cities grow in population, surface area, and income per person? Which cities grow faster and why? To these questions, the urban growth literature has offered a variety of answers. Within an integrated framework, this chapter reviews key theories with implications for urban growth. It then relates these theories to empirical evidence on the main drivers of city growth, drawn primarily from the United States and other developed countries. Consistent with the monocentric city model, fewer roads and restrictions on housing supply hinder urban growth. The fact that housing is durable also has important effects on the evolution of cities. In recent decades, cities with better amenities have grown faster. Agglomeration economies and human capital are also important drivers of city growth. Although more human capital, smaller firms, and a greater diversity in production foster urban growth, the exact channels through which those effects percolate are not clearly identified. Finally, shocks also determine the fate of cities. Structural changes affecting the broader economy have left a big footprint on the urban landscape. Small cityspecific shocks also appear to matter, consistent with the recent wave of random growth models.

MICRO-FOUNDATIONS OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES
GILLES DURANTON, DIEGO PUGA
11 JUNE 2003
This handbook chapter studies the theoretical microfoundations of urban agglomeration economies. We distinguish three types of micro-foundations, based on sharing, matching, and learning mechanisms. For each of these three categories, we develop one or more core models in detail and discuss the literature in relation to those models. This allows us to give a precise characterisation of some of the main theoretical underpinnings of urban agglomeration economies, to discuss modelling issues that arise when working with these tools, and to compare different sources of agglomeration economies in terms of the aggregate urban outcomes they produce as well as in terms of their normative implications.

DIVERSITY AND SPECIALISATION IN CITIES: WHY, WHERE AND WHEN DOES IT MATTER?
GILLES DURANTON AND DIEGO PUGA
AUGUST 1999
Why are some cities specialised and others diversified? What are the advantages and disadvantages of urban specialisation and diversity? To what extent do the structure of cities and the activities of firms and people in them change over time? How does the sectorial composition of cities influence their evolution? To answer these and related questions, we first distil some key stylized facts from the empirical literature on cities and the composition of their activities. We then turn to a review of different theories looking at such issues, and study the extent to which these theories contribute to the understanding of the empirical regularities

FEEDBACK ON VARIOUS REPORTS FOR THE URBAN MISSION AND A PROPOSAL TO DEFINE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
OCTOBER 2012
This document is in two parts. The first part provides some formal feedback on a number of reports written for the mission. The second part develops a methodology to define metropolitan areas in Colombia.

THE MICROECONOMETRICS OF URBAN ANALYSIS
GILLES DURANTON
JUNE 2012
This document provides some econometric support to the projects on connectivity, amenities, local public goods provision, and agglomeration economies and local labour markets.

THE DNP URBAN MISSION IN CONTEX
GILLES DURANTON
2012
This document uses the theoretical framework presented in Duranton (2008) to provide a rationale for the various parts of the DNP urban mission.

REDES DE CIUDADES Y EXTERNALIDADES
RAFAEL BOIX DOMÈNECH
MAYO DE 2003

1ER REPORTE DEL ESTADO DE LAS CIUDADES DE COLOMBIA: CAMINO HACIA LA PROSPERIDAD URBANA
ALFREDO BATEMAN, JORGE IVÁN GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA JOSÉ NIETO, JUAN MAURICIO RAMÍREZ, FERNANDO ROJAS Y ROBERTO LIPPI
NOVIEMBRE DE 2015

SISTEMA DE INDICADORES DE PRODUCTIVIDAD PARA LA CIUDAD REGIÓN
MARÍA ANGÉLICA ARBELÁEZ, MARÍA FERNANDA ROSALES
MAYO DE 2004

PROPUESTA DE LA ASOCIACIÓN DE CIUDADES CAPITALES DE COLOMBIA (ACCC) AL PLAN NACIONAL DE DESARROLLO
ASOCIACION DE CIUDADES CAPITALES DE COLOMBIA
2014
El documento tiene como objetivo proponer –desde la visión, prioridades y perspectivas de las ciudades capitales- al Gobierno Nacional una serie de recomendaciones de política pública de cara a la construcción del nuevo Plan de Desarrollo 2015-2019.
La propuesta se construye a partir de la reflexión y principales retos y desafíos de las ciudades colombianas, en el marco del trabajo de la ACCC y de la decisión de su última junta donde se le pidió a ONU-habitat coordinar los esfuerzos para la presentación de dicha propuesta, además dada la elaboración del Reporte del Estado de las Ciudades Colombianas que se adelanta en la actualidad.
En concreto, la propuesta recoge fundamentalmente recomendaciones de las Cumbres de la Asociación de Ciudades Capitales y las mesas que a su interior se han realizado, pero también de la Misión de Ciudades, de las recomendaciones de las políticas de desarrollo territorial realizadas por la OCDE para Colombia y de los foros regionales y nacionales realizados por ONU-habitat.

CENTRALIDADES EN LA CIUDAD CAPITALISTA CONTEMPORANEA
ERIKA PAOLA ARCINIEGAS MAZUERA, DIANA MARLENE BARRIOS CAMPOS
2002

CIUDADES POPULARES EN DISPUTA ¿ACCESO A SUELO URBANO PARA TODOS?
PEDRO ABRAMO, MARCELO RODRÍGUEZ MANCILLA Y JAIME ERAZO ESPINOSA
2016

PROCESOS URBANOS EN ACCIÓN, ¿DESARROLLO DE CIUDADES PARA TODOS?
PEDRO ABRAMO, MARCELO RODRÍGUEZ MANCILLA Y JAIME ERAZO ESPINOSA
2016
Con el tercer volumen de la Colección Ciudades de la Gente titulado Procesos urbanos en acción: ¿desarrollo de ciudades para todos?, se pretende descubrir y poner de manifiesto elementos de reflexión que le permitan a las y los lectores comprender los diversos significados del trabajo universitario, en especial el vinculado a la investigación científico-social de los comúnmente llamados barrios populares, en donde viven los pobres urbanos, quienes a nuestro juicio han creado uno de los componentes más importantes en la estructura de nuestras ciudades, los asentamientos populares.
Tomado de: http://www.clacso.org.ar/libreria-latinoamericana/libro_detalle.php?id_libro=1116&pageNum_rs_libros=1&totalRows_rs_libros=1129

LA CIUDAD COM-FUSA: MERCADO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE LA ESTRUCTURA URBANA EN LAS GRANDES METRÓPOLIS LATINOAMERICANAS
PEDRO ABRAMO
2012
Con la crisis del fordismo urbano, el mercado inmobiliario ha resurgido como una fuerza determinante del proceso de coordinación social del uso del suelo y la producción de estructura intraurbana. Es el retorno de la “mano invisible” del mercado. En este artículo se analiza la relación entre la producción de estructura urbana y el funcionamiento del mercado inmobiliario en América Latina, tanto en su versión formal como en la informal. La hipótesis de trabajo es que las ciudades latinoamericanas, comparadas con los dos modelos tradicionales (la urbe compacta mediterránea, y la difusa anglosajona), muestran una estructura urbana particular. En ellas, el funcionamiento de los mercados del suelo produce simultáneamente una estructura urbana compacta y difusa. Es a esta estructura, característica de las grandes urbes latinoamericanas, que llamamos ciudad “com-fusa”.

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEAS, EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS
BRUCE CURRIE-ALDER, RAVI KANBUR, DAVID M. MALONE, ROHINTON MEDHORA
2014
Thinking on development—and its application in practice—can be properly understood only within its particular historical, political, and institutional contexts. This volume traces the history of thinking in various segments of development, maps the range of approaches to each, and set out options and possibilities for the future. A central premise is that an objective and universally‐accepted measure of “success” in development and paths to it does not exist. If the countries of the world are varied in every way from their initial conditions to the degree of their openness to outside money and influence, and success is not centered in any one group, it stands to reason that there cannot be a single recipe for development. Each chapter presents an analytical survey of thinking about development, highlighting debates and taking into account critical perspectives. The first half of the volume traces the concepts and theories currently used to explain development, where they came from, and where they may be going. The latter half captures how the real‐life experiences of different countries and organizations have been inspired by, and contributed to, thinking on development. The volume concludes by looking ahead and to discern the likely course of development and of development thinking in the next fifty years. This is a key reference on the range of concepts used to think about development—their origins, evolution, and trajectories—and is intended as a valued resource for an audience of scholars, graduate students, and practitioners.
Tomado de: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671656.001.0001/acprof-9780199671656

EVOLUCIÓN DE LA POLÍTICA DE DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO TERRITORIAL EN CHILE: PRINCIPALES INICIATIVAS
MARÍA ANGÉLICA ROPERT
2009
Este artículo se sustenta en la tesis que el mejoramiento de la competitividad y el desarrollo económico del país requiere de un cambio en la estrategia de desarrollo con políticas y programas públicos que apunten a mejorar la competitividad de las cadenas de valor de alto potencial aprovechando las sinergias, atributos y activos de los territorios. De acuerdo a esto, en el artículo se revisan y analizan las principales iniciativas que han apuntado a incorporar el enfoque territorial en el accionar público vinculado con la promoción del desarrollo productivo y la competitividad.
De esta revisión se concluye que todas las iniciativas implementadas han apuntado en la dirección correcta y que, al analizarlas en su conjunto y en el tiempo, dan cuenta de un proceso de cambio en las políticas y programas públicos. Pero, en paralelo, se destaca que Evaluating functional regions no han sido constitutivas de un modelo ni de una estrategia conocida y compartida por los actores involucrados y liderada al más alto nivel en consistencia con la estrategia de descentralización adoptada por el país.

PRICING A RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: UNCERTAINTY, INDIFFERENCE, AND PROTEST BEHAVIORS
MARCOS DOMÍNGUEZ-TORREIROA, MARIO SOLINO
4 MARCH 2016
This article presents an econometric approach to modeling uncertainty, unwillingness to pay, and protest behavior in contingent valuation studies. For that purpose, a mixture model with sample selection is developed for a multiple-bounded uncertainty elicitation format. The proposed theoretical framework is applied to evaluate the social welfare impact of implementing a sustainable rural development program. Results show that a “naive” analytical approach that excludes protesters from the analysis would result in significantly higher willingness to pay estimates for those individuals who favor the implementation of the program and agree to reveal their true reservation prices.

EVALUATING FUNCTIONAL REGIONS
SAMO DROBNE, MARIJA BOGATAJ
2012
In the paper, we suggest an approach to evaluate the number and composition of functional regions. Suggested approach is based on basic characteristics of functional regions, that are (1) more intensive intra-regional than the inter-regional interactions and (2) internal social and economic heterogeneity. Those characteristics are measured by factors estimated in spatial interaction model. The approach to evaluate functional regions was applied to Slovenia for three time periods.

PARTICIPACIÓN LABORAL DE LA MUJER EN CHILE: 1958-2003
OSVALDO LARRAÑAGA
1958-2003
Este estudio tiene por objeto el análisis de las tendencias de la participación laboral de la mujer entre los años 1958 y 2003. Para tal efecto se utilizan dos fuentes principales de datos primarios: la encuesta de empleo de la Universidad de Chile (Encuesta de Ocupación y Desocupación en el Gran Santiago) y la encuesta de hogares Casen (Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional). La primera fuente de información entrega una aproximación razonable de las tendencias de la variable en el país, según se desprende de un análisis comparativo con Censos de Población y Vivienda, del Instituto de Estadísticas (INE).
El trabajo se organiza en cuatro secciones. En primer término, se describen los datos y las principales tendencias de la participación de la mujer a lo largo del período bajo análisis. La segunda sección examina en detalle las características de la participación laboral de la mujer en el país, así como su relación con los desarrollos en materias como educación, fertilidad, preferencias, crecimiento de la economía, ciclo de vida y estructura de los hogares. La tercera sección presenta un análisis estadístico multivariado, que relaciona más formalmente la participación laboral de la mujer con sus factores relacionados. Una última sección ofrece un resumen y conclusiones de la investigación.

IDENTIFYING FUNCTIONAL REGIONS IN AUSTRALIA USING HIERARCHICAL AGGREGATION TECHNIQUES
WILLIAM MITCHELL, ANTHEA BILL AND MARTIN WATTS
NOVEMBER 2007
This paper continues our work focused on developing a new socio-economic geography for Australia such that the chosen spatial aggregation of data is based on an analysis of economic behaviour. The underlying hypothesis is that the development of a geographical classification based on underlying economic behaviour will provide new insights into critical issues of regional performance, including unemployment differentials, the impact of industry, infrastructure and changes in local public expenditure on local labour markets. As a precursor to detailed work on the 2006 Census of Population and Housing data, we establish the proof of concept in this paper of the Intramax methodology using 2001 Journey-to-Work data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) for the state of New South Wales. The functional regionalisation generated by the Intramax method is then tested using ABS labour force data. We compare 2001 ABS Census of Population and Housing data aggregated by the ABS labour force regions to the same data aggregated using our functional regions. The results demonstrate the potential value of this technique for the development of a new geography.
Tomado de: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-5871.2009.00631.x/abstract

CENSO 2002: SÍNTESIS DE RESULTADOS
INE
2002
A través de esta “Síntesis de Resultados”, el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE) ofrece una visión global actualizada de la situación del país a partir de los datos reunidos en el XVII Censo Nacional de Población y VI de Vivienda, realizado en abril de 2002.
Los antecedentes contenidos en esta publicación posibilitarán los primeros análisis que encaucen la identificación de los desafíos a corto y mediano plazo, así como las iniciativas destinadas a fortalecer el desarrollo del país.
Se han preparado además las publicaciones “Censo 2002. Resultados Tomo I: Población; País – Región” y “Censo 2002. Resultados Tomo II: Personas, Viviendas y Hogares; País – Región”, las que contienen datos detallados y con una mayor desagregación. Como una innovación y con el auxilio de nuevas tecnologías, se ha editado los resultados en formato de disco compacto, presentados a nivel regional y comunal. Esta información también está disponible en los sitios web www.ine.cl y www.censo2002.cl.
Al presentar este informe, el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE) agradece especialmente el compromiso cívico expresado el 24 de abril de 2002, por cerca de 380 mil censistas, provenientes de las más diversas instituciones públicas y privadas, más de cuatro millones de jefes y jefas de hogar y el esfuerzo de los municipios, Fuerzas Armadas,Carabineros y Policía de Investigaciones, a través de todo el país.

COMPENDIO DE ESTADÍSTICAS DE GÉNERO 2007-2009
INE
2007-2009
El Compendio de Estadísticas de Género es un documento de consulta que recopila a partir de las publicaciones del Instituto Nacional de estadísticas, efectuadas entre 2007 y 2009, parte de los datos desagregados por sexo que se incorporaron en cada una de ellas.
Este documento contiene publicaciones de todos los sectores estadísticos: Encuesta Coyuntural de Remuneraciones y costo de mano de obra 2007; Encuesta Suplementaria de Ingresos; Cifras de empleo; Estadísticas Sociales y Culturales: Anuario Policía de Investigaciones y Anuario de Justicia; Estadísticas Demográficas y Vitales; Estadísticas Económicas: Industria Manufacturera ENIA; Encuesta Estructural de Comercio Anual Comercio y Servicios; y Estadísticas Territoriales: División Político Administrativa y Censal.
Este compendio estadístico incorpora información actualizada y resumida de las estadísticas desagregadas por sexo que publica el Instituto, en el marco del enfoque de género que propicia un espacio para mostrar la información sistematizada existente, a modo de compilación y organización de los datos más relevantes, en sintonía, con las recomendaciones internacionales que establecen el desarrollo de las estadísticas de género como un desafío a la luz de los avances en las estadísticas sociales y económicas de todos los países de América Latina.
De acuerdo a ello, resulta altamente necesario contar con un compendio estadístico de esta naturaleza.

THE WINNERS’ CHOICE:SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL 21ST CENTURY REGIONS
MARK D. PARTRIDGE, M. ROSE OLFERT
MARCH 4, 2010
Throughout the second half of the 20 Century, urbanization, new technologies, rapid labor-saving productivity growth in primary industries, and improved highways combined to create large-scale rural-urban functionally integrated regions. These forces have raised the stakes for regions in their pursuit of economic development and growth, making successful regional policy even more important. Changes to the governance structures consistent with the increased interdependence within broad rural-urban regions will improve the region’s competitiveness; adopting fad-based approaches and policies aimed at “picking winners” will be less fruitful. Going forward, continuing globalization and environmental sustainability have the potential to fundamentally reshape relative regional attractiveness.

MÉXICO FORMACIÓN DE REGIONES ECONÓMICAS, INFLUENCIAS, FACTORES Y SISTEMAS
ANGEL BASSOLS BATALLA
1992
Este libro tiene como propósito básico exponer las ideas que permitan mostrar el impacto de las etapas históricas y de los principales factores actuales, tanto de recursos naturales como de ciudades y vías de comunicación política económica, en la formación de las regiones económicas del país. La irracional distribución espacial de las ramas económicas y especialmente de la industria de transformación en México, es un producto histórico. Comenzó a gestarse en la época colonial, se afianzó en el porfirismo y se agudizó en el periodo porstrevolucionario de 1940-1976. Es fruto de modos de producción y distribución que han hecho de México un país doblemente dependiente, por un lado de la economía extranjera y por otro, en lo interior, de las clases poderosas a las que solo interesa su enriquecimiento, con la mayor rapidez, la mayor facilidad y en el menor espacio posible. A través de toda su historia el pueblo mexicano ha tratado de vencer esas dos dependencias y no cabe duda que alcanzará la victoria. La obra es producto de casi 30 años de actividad profesional, de viajes e investigaciones en todo el país y numerosas naciones del planeta acerca del desequilibrio regional en el México de hoy.
Tomado de: http://ru.iiec.unam.mx/1442/

TOWARD INCLUSIVE GROWTH: IS THERE REGIONAL CONVERGENCE IN SOCIAL WELFARE?
ANDRÉS RODRÍGUEZ-POSE AND VASSILIS TSELIOS
2015
Economic and social cohesion at a regional level is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU). The European regional development policy aims to promote a harmonious, balanced, and sustainable development through inclusive growth. Yet, while economic cohesion, proxied by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, has attracted significant attention with most studies finding little regional convergence since 1985, social cohesion has been virtually ignored. This article tries to cover this gap by asking the question of whether regional convergence in social welfare, measured by Amartya Sen’s welfare index, has taken place across regions of the EU-15. Using panel data models with or without spatial interaction effects, we find that the absence of convergence in GDP per capita is not matched in terms of social welfare. Welfare levels have converged significantly across European regions and this convergence has been built on a series of structural and institutional factors, among which female participation in the labor force is the most relevant.

CLUSTERS, FUNCTIONAL REGIONS AND CLUSTER POLICIES
CHARLIE KARLSSON
MARCH 2007
This paper gives an overview of research on economic clusters and clustering and is motivated by the growing intellectual and political interest for the subject. Functional regions have the features that agglomeration of economic activities i.e. clusters, benefit from. Functional regions have low intra-regional transaction and transportation cost and has access to the local labour market. The features of spatial economic concentration were for a long time disregarded and it was first in the early 1990s that Krugman brought the subject into the stage light. The scientific interests of cluster and clustering phenomenon have after the “new” introduction rapidly increased in the last decade. Hence, the subject is being thought at various education levels. The importance of cluster and clustering has also been recognized at a national, regional and local level and cluster policies are becoming a major part of political thinking. These policies are however often based on a scarce analysis where no strict criterions are stated.

TERRITORIOS FUNCIONALES EN CHILE
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, BENJAMÍN JARA, RICARDO FUENTEALBA, JAIME TOHÁ, FÉLIX MODREGO, ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN Y NAIM BRO.
2011
La inmensa mayoría de las personas, organizaciones y empresas en Chile no realizan sus principales funciones en el espacio de una comuna sino que en espacios mayores, pluri-comunales, que se llaman territorios funcionales. El documento describe estos grupos con base en variables de siete dimensiones: demografía; ingreso, pobreza y distribución del ingreso; empleo; educación; vivienda y sus servicios; gobierno local; participación social y política.
El estudio demuestra que determinadas ciudades intermedias confieren capacidad de crecimiento y aceleran la reducción de la pobreza en los territorios que se articulan en torno de ellas. No obstante, los gobiernos municipales de las comunas periféricas de cada territorio se ven menguados en su capacidad de oferta a los ciudadanos, además de no poseer el necesario correlato para las integración de los mercados laborales, de los servicios, y de las redes sociales de las personas en espacios mayores a la comuna, perdiendo oportunidades en desarrollo económico, gestión ambiental, infraestructura, cultura, etc.

COMMUTING ZONES AND LABOR MARKET AREAS
CHARLES M. TOLBERT, MOLLY SIZER
1990

LA ESTRATEGIA DE MICRORREGIONES
RICARDO CARMONA ABREGO
MAYO-AGOSTO 2002

RURAL TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT
ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN Y JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ
MARCH 2004

THE WINNERS’ CHOICE: SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL 21ST CENTURY REGIONS
MARK D. PARTRIDGE, M. ROSE OLFERT
MARCH 4, 2010
Throughout the second half of the 20 Century, urbanization, new technologies, rapid labor-saving productivity growth in primary industries, and improved highways combined to create large-scale rural-urban functionally integrated regions. These forces have raised the stakes for regions in their pursuit of economic development and growth, making successful regional policy even more important. Changes to the governance structures consistent with the increased interdependence within broad rural-urban regions will improve the region’s competitiveness; adopting fad-based approaches and policies aimed at “picking winners” will be less fruitful. Going forward, continuing globalization and environmental sustainability have the potential to fundamentally reshape relative regional attractiveness.

BEYOND THE CITY: THE RURAL CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT
THE WORLD BANK
2005
In Latin American and Caribbean history, rural societies have been at the center of both the origins of prosperity and of social upheaval. Rural communities have access to a wealth of natural resources, including arable land and forests, yet they face the highest poverty rates within countries. Characterized by low population densities and located far from the major urban centers, rural communities must overcome severe restrictions in their access to public services and private markets, even in some countries where public expenditures per inhabitant are higher in rural than in urban communities. Beyond the City evaluates the contribution of rural development and policies to growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental degradation in the rest of the economy, as well as in the rural space. This title brings together new theoretical and empirical treatments of the links between rural and national development. New findings and are combined with existing literature to enhance our understanding of the how rural economic activities contribute to various aspects of national development. The study is based on original research funded by the World Bank’s Office of the Chief Economist for Latin America and the Caribbean. Of particular relevance is the interaction between agricultural and territorial development issues. The empirical findings also make substantial contributions to the debate over the appropriate design of public policies aiming to enhance the rural contribution to national development, including economic growth, poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, and macroeconomic stability.
Tomado de: http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/abs/10.1596/0-8213-6097-3

ROADS, EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
CHRISTIAN VOLPE MARTINCUSA, JERÓNIMO CARBALLOB, ANA CUSOLITOC
JUNE 2014
Domestic road programs are often justified on the basis of their presumed positive effects on firms’ exports and accordingly on firms’ employment. In this paper we evaluate this policy claim for Peru, a developing country whose regions were exposed to an asymmetric infrastructure shock. In so doing, we take advantage of detailed geo-referenced data on firm-level trade for the period 2003–2010 as well as on recent and historical road infrastructure. In particular, to identify the impacts of interest, we first exploit the dimensions of this dataset to account for regional-sectoral and even firm-level confounding factors through extensive sets of fixed effects. In addition, we conduct placebo exercises and carry out instrumental variable estimations whereby we instrument recent changes in the road network with the pre-Columbian Inca road network. Estimates concur in suggesting that improvements in transport infrastructure had a significant positive impact on firms’ exports and thereby on firms’ job growth.

TRANSPORTATION COSTS AND THE SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
STEPHEN J. REDDING, MATTHEW A. TURNER
JUNE 2014
This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between the spatial distribution of economic activity and transportation costs. We develop a multi-region model of economic geography that we use to understand the general equilibrium implications of transportation infrastructure improvements within and between locations for wages, population, trade and industry composition. Guided by the predictions of this model, we review the empirical literature on the effects of transportation infrastructure improvements on economic development, paying particular attention to the use of exogenous sources of variation in the construction of transportation infrastructure. We examine evidence from different spatial scales, between and within cities. We outline a variety of areas for further research, including distinguishing reallocation from growth and dynamics.

CONCEPTUALIZING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON AND JAVIER ESCOBAL
2014
This article is the introduction to a volume containing findings from a program conducted over five years in 11 Latin
America countries, to answer three questions: (1) Are there rural territories that have experienced simultaneous economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved distribution of income?; (2) What factors determine these territorial dynamics?, and; (3) What can be done to stimulate and promote this kind of territorial dynamics? The article outlines the analytical and policy issues and the methodology, summarizes the remaining 10 papers in the collection, and presents a conceptual framework that itself is one of the results of the program.

EXPLAINING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, JAVIER ESCOBAL AND ANTHONY BEBBINGTON
2014
This article summarizes the results of a research program conducted in 11 Latin America countries, addressing two questions: (1) what factors determine territorial development dynamics that lead to economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved income distribution? (2) What can be done to stimulate this kind of territorial dynamics? We highlight five “bundles of factors” that we found in 19 case studies of territorial development 1, as well as the role of social territorial coalitions that appear to be necessary for territorial dynamics that lead to economic growth with social inclusion. The article calls for territorial development policies to complement sectorial policies.

RURAL TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT
ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN Y JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ
MARCH 2004

TRANSFORMACIONES RURALES Y AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR EN AMÉRICA LATINA
ADRIÁN G. RODRÍGUEZ
ABRIL DE 2016
El documento tiene como objetivo informar sobre el proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural en países de América Latina y el Caribe durante la primera década del presente siglo. En línea con lo planteado por la CEPAL, se entiende por cambio estructural un proceso de transformación caracterizado por cuatro elementos: i) diversificación en la estructura productiva; ii) más encadenamientos entre sectores productivos; iii) incremento en la importancia relativa de actividades intensivas en conocimiento; y iv) inserción en mercados internacionales de rápido crecimiento. El documento revisa algunos de los principales cambios estructurales que se han dado en el mundo rural durante las últimas décadas, con énfasis en temas demográficos y de mercado de trabajo, así como de brechas estructurales que persisten. Además, se presenta una aproximación descriptiva del efecto del proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural sobre la agricultura familiar, a partir de una concepción del cambio estructural restringida al primer elemento. La reducción en el peso del empleo agrícola, el incremento en el empleo de las mujeres (sobre todo en actividades no agrícolas), el incremento del empleo asalariado versus la caída del empleo por cuenta propia agrícola, y el incremento de la residencia urbana entre los empleados agrícolas son cuatro transformaciones significativas que se presentaron a lo largo de la década anterior en el mercado de trabajo rural. Desde el punto de vista de la dinámica del mercado de trabajo, la principal expresión del proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural es la reducción en la importancia relativa del empleo agrícola, sobre todo del empleo por cuenta propia y familiar sin remuneración versus el incremento del empleo no agrícola, especialmente del asalariado. El documento destaca la necesidad de una gestión más integrada de las políticas públicas en el mundo rural.

AVERAGE CITY SIZE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
SUSANNE A. FRICK AND ANDRÉS RODRÍGUEZ-POSE
MAY 31, 2016
This article examines the link between average city size and aggregate economic growth in a total of 114 countries for the period between 1960 and 2010. The analysis—which includes pooled two-stage least-squares (2SLS), panel data analysis, system generalized method-ofmoments (GMM) estimator and an instrumental variable (IV) approach—finds that, in contrast to the prevailing view, there is no universal positive relationship between average city size and economic growth and that the results vary between high-income and developing countries. In high-income countries, there is consistent evidence of a positive albeit decreasing link between city size and economic growth. In contrast, the relationship does not hold for developing countries, for which most of the coefficients display insignificant results or point towards a negative connection between both factors.

POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
RICHARD WEBB
MAYO, 2012
El alejamiento y la dispersión poblacional, ¿han sido causas mayores de la persistente pobreza rural? La literatura peruana dice poco sobre el tema, y enfatiza más bien el poder y la dominación política. Sin embargo, existen varias evidencias que apoyan la hipótesis: la correlación estadística entre pobreza y urbanización, la nueva teoría del crecimiento que enfatiza el poder de la cercanía, estudios de impacto de los caminos y de la telecomunicación, y dos análisis econométricos que constatan un efecto significante de la aglomeración y distancia sobre el ingreso familiar. La evidencia más concluyente es la coincidencia entre la masiva expansión de caminos y acceso a las telecomunicaciones, y el despegue histórico en el ingreso y las condiciones de vida rurales desde los años noventa.
Tomado de: http://repositorio.minedu.gob.pe/handle/123456789/1319

 

THE DELIMITATION AND COHERENCE OF FUNCTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS
F. CÖRVERS, M. HENSEN AND D. BONGAERTS
JANUARY 2006
The aim of this paper is to examine the coherence between and within functional as well as administrative regions in a labour market context. The larger the coherence of the local labour markets within the delimited regions, the larger the heterogeneity between the delimited regions is expected to be for particular measures related to the economy and the labour market. Contrary to previous delimitation studies we test for labour market coherence. The functionally defined regions are compared with the administratively defined regions with respect to four economic indicators: (i) income level; (ii) housing prices; (iii) employment rate, and (iv) unemployment rate.
It turns out that the administrative delimitation of the Netherlands performs, on average, equally well as the functional delimitation. The hypothesis that the municipalities within the administratively defined regions show less coherence than the municipalities within the functionally delimited regions, cannot be rejected. We find some minor evidence that the coherence is greater for the average income level of municipalities within functional regions than within administrative regions. It can be concluded that there is not much to be gained in labour market policies by using functional instead of administrative divisions of regional labour markets. Therefore we doubt the usefulness of other studies on functional delimitations of labour market regions. Finally, our results imply that it may be better for regional labour market policies not to use a highly differentiated division of regions for such a small country as the Netherlands.

COMUNAS RURALES DE CHILE
JULIO BERDEGUÉ, ESTEBAN JARA, FÉLIX MODREGO, XIMENA SANCLEMENTE Y ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN
2010
Durante la última década, ha habido un consenso creciente de que la diferenciación dicotómica entre lo urbano y lo rural es una simplificación extrema que proporciona una visión muy segmentada de la realidad. El límite entre lo rural y lo urbano es cada vez más difuso en toda América Latina, aproximándose a lo que sucede en los países desarrollados. Al mismo tiempo, lo rural es cada vez más complejo, existiendo muchos tipos de ruralidad. El presente estudio presenta una tipología de comunas rurales en Chile, basada en el concepto de que existen grados y tipos distintos de ruralidad. Este criterio se operacionaliza mediante un conjunto amplio de variables que incorpora las dimensiones demográfica, económica, accesibilidad o conectividad con centros urbanos, niveles de capital humano y niveles de acceso a servicios. La zona estudiada es la comprendida entre la Región de Coquimbo por el norte y la Región de Los Lagos por el sur, donde vive poco más del 90% de la población del país.

CIUDADES RURALES DE CHILE
JULIO BERDEGUÉ, ESTEBAN JARA, FÉLIX MODREGO, XIMENA SANCLEMENTE Y ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN
2002
El presente estudio centra su análisis en las dinámicas económicas y poblacionales de aquellas ciudades intermedias que se ubican en comunas rurales en Chile, a las que llamamos Ciudades Rurales (CRs). Chile al igual que en el resto de América Latina, es diversa en grado y tipo. La realidad de una ciudad rural es diferente a la de una metrópoli, no sólo en su tamaño sino que en las relaciones con su entorno y con las actividades económicas primarias. Una ciudad rural es también distinta de una aldea -nuevamente- no sólo por su tamaño sino que por el tipo de relaciones sociales que sus habitantes establecen entre sí, por los servicios que reúne, y por la base económica que ofrece a su población.

REDEFINING TERRITORIES: THE FUNCTIONAL REGIONS
OECD
2002
This publication reports on current definitions and uses of functional regions in the OECD countries. It sets forth the reasons that prompt countries to formulate such entities, takes stock of responsibilities and prerogatives existing at these echelons, and tallies their financial resources.The publication is an assessment of the relevance of using these regions as analytical territorial entities in the OECD countries, and as a framework for the application of certain territorial policies.
tomado de: http://www.oecdbookshop.org/fr/browse/title-detail/?ISB=9789264196179

SPATIAL INTERACTION MODELS WITH INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL DATA FOR EXPLAINING LABOR FLOWS AND DEVELOPING LOCAL LABOR MARKETS
A. CHAKRABORTY, M.A. BEAMONTE, A.E. GELFAND, M.P. ALONSO, P. GARGALLO, M. SALVADOR
2013
As a result of increased mobility patterns of workers, explaining labor flows and partitioning regions into local labor markets (LLMs) have become important economic issues. For the former, it is useful to understand jointly where individuals live and where they work. For the latter, such markets attempt to delineate regions with a high proportion of workers both living and working. To address these questions, we separate the problem into two stages. First, we introduce a stochastic modeling approach using a hierarchical spatial interaction specification at the individual level, incorporating individual-level covariates, origin (O) and destination (D) covariates, and spatial structure. We fit the model within a Bayesian framework. Such modeling enables posterior inference regarding the importance of these components as well as the O–D matrix of flows. Nested model comparison is available as well. For computational convenience, we start with a minimum market configuration (MMC) upon which our model is overlaid. At the second stage, after model fitting and inference, we turn to LLM creation. We introduce a utility with regard to the performance of an LLM partition and, with posterior samples; we can obtain the posterior distribution of the utility for any given LLM specification which we view as a partition of the MMC. We further provide an explicit algorithm to obtain good partitions according to this utility, employing these posterior distributions. However, the space of potential market partitions is huge and we discuss challenges regarding selection of the number of markets and comparison of partitions using this utility. Our approach is illustrated using a rich dataset for the region of Aragón in Spain. In particular, we analyze the full dataset and also a sample. Future data collection will arise as samples of the working population so assessing population level inference from the sample is useful.

THE DELINEATION OF 21ST CENTURY LOCAL LABOUR MARKET AREAS: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND A RESEARCH AGENDA
JOSÉ M. CASADO-DÍAZ, MIKE COOMBES
2011
The paper reviews international scientific research on the delineation of local labour market areas (LLMAs) used in a range of contrasting countries for administrative and statistical purposes. The concept of LLMA is discussed, emphasising the spatial ‘clustering’ of interaction between labour supply and demand. The paper develops a taxonomy of methods and suggests that identifying best practice has so far been held back by a lack of clear criteria for objectively evaluating different methods. The paper then outlines a research agenda for further development of LLMA delineation methods, including the suggestion of more cross-national research.

ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND THE GROWTH AND INVESTMENT EFFECTS OF REGIONAL TRANSFERS
SASCHA O. BECKER, PETER H. EGGER AND MAXIMILIAN VON EHRLICH
JUNE 2012
Researchers often estimate average treatment effects of programs without investigating heterogeneity across units. Yet, individuals, firms, regions, or countries vary in their ability, e.g., to utilize transfers. We analyze Objective 1 Structural Funds transfers of the European Commission to regions of EU member states below a certain income level by way of a regression discontinuity design with systematically heterogeneous treatment effects. Only about 30% and 21% of the regions – those with sufficient human capital and good-enough institutions – are able to turn transfers into faster per-capita income growth and per-capita investment. In general, the variance of the treatment effect is much bigger than its mean.

DECENTRALIZATION MEASURES REVISITED
JORGE MARTINEZ-VAZQUEZ, ANDREY TIMOFEEV
APRIL 2009
For the last half of a century, economists in an ever growing literature have been trying to measure decentralization with the purpose of using that measure as either the dependent or an independent variable in their empirical models. The suggested measures essentially boil down to a few concepts: locally raised own revenues, autonomy on expenditure decisions, locally spent national grants, or the number and size of local units. These basic components have entered decentralization measures in various functional forms: additive, multiplicative, in powers, and various mixes of those. This paper revisits these measures and our main finding is that aggregating those distinct dimensions of decentralization into a single indicator inevitably leads to a loss of information. We conclude that in a multivariate framework the distinct aspects of decentralization should enter regression analyses separately, in the most flexible functional form possible. At the same time, while no single indicator can capture all aspects of decentralization, some indicators are more inclusive and informative than others. Therefore, if for some reason we have to use a single indicator, our study suggests which indicator would be more appropriate for the hypothesis at hand. We illustrate these points examining differences in the empirical behavior of different decentralization indicators in relationship to each other and in their statistical association with some relevant economic outcomes in the fiscal decentralization literature.

FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALIZATION: A CRITICAL SURVEY OF FREQUENTLY USED INDICATORS
BLUME, LORENZ; VOIGT, STEFAN
2008
The economic effects of federalism are unclear: some papers find that federalism has strong positive effects on a number of economically relevant variables, others find negative effects. The results often crucially hinge upon the proxies for federalism used. In this paper, we critically survey the existing indicators for both federalism and fiscal decentralization. We argue that federalism is a constitutional institution whereas decentralization is (the outcome of) a policy choice and that the two ought to be systematically distinguished because decentralization can also occur in non-federally structured states. We further argue that institutional details are very important with regard to federalism and that dummy variables usually capture only very specific aspects of the institutional details. We use factor analysis to test whether the latent variables behind the observed indicators support these assumptions. It is shown that more than two important factors result, implying that a more fine-grained differentiation beyond the distinction between federalism and decentralization might be in order. The correlations of the most important proxies for various aspects of federalism and decentralization with a number of (quasi-) exogenous variables as well as with institutional variables are usually rather modest.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
RICHARD M. BIRD AND FRANÇOIS VAILLANCOURT
1998
There appears to be an increasing trend in worldwide fiscal decentralization. In particular, many developing countries are turning to various forms of fiscal decentralization as an escape from inefficient and ineffective governance, macroeconomic stability, and inadequate growth. Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries: An Overview edited by Professors Bird and Vaillancourt and featuring important research from leading scholars assesses the progress, problems and potentials of fiscal decentralization in a variety of developing countries around the world. With rich and varied case-study material from countries as diverse as India, China, Colombia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and South Africa this volume complements neatly the collection Fiscal Aspects of Evolving Federations edited by David Wildasin and also published by Cambridge, which presented theoretical advances in the area of research
Tomado de: http://admin.cambridge.org/se/academic/subjects/economics/economic-development-and-growth/fiscal-decentralization-developing-countries

DECENTRALISATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH – PART 1: HOW FISCAL FEDERALISM AFFECTS LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT
HANSJÖRG BLÖCHLIGER
2013
Decentralisation and economic growth Part 1: How fiscal federalism affects long-term development Intergovernmental fiscal frameworks usually reflect fundamental societal choices and history and are not foremost geared towards achieving economic policy objectives. Yet, like most institutional arrangements, fiscal relations affect the behaviour of firms, households and governments and thereby economic activity.
This paper presents empirical research on the potential effects of fiscal decentralisation on a set of outcomes such as GDP, productivity, public investment and school performance. The results can be summarised as follows: decentralisation, as measured by revenue or spending shares, is positively associated with GDP per capita levels. The impact seems to be stronger for revenue decentralisation than for spending decentralisation. Decentralisation is strongly and positively associated with educational outcomes as measured by international student assessments (PISA). While educational functions can be delegated either to sub-central governments (SCG) or to schools, the results suggest that both strategies appear to be equally beneficial for educational performance. Finally, investment in physical and – especially – human capital as a share of general government spending is significantly higher in more decentralised countries.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
JORGE MARTINEZ-VAZQUEZ AND ROBERT M. MCNAB
2003
Fiscal decentralization may indeed have a direct impact on economic growth but the theoretical underpinnings for this relationship remain largely undeveloped. A fair summary of the empirical search for a direct relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth is that it remains an open question. Much less attention has been devoted in the literature to the indirect channels through which fiscal decentralization may affect economic growth. We argue that much work remains to be done before policy advisors and decision makers can formulate and implement decentralization programs on the basis of improving the rate of economic growth.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY
HAMID DAVOODI AND HENG-FU ZOU
JANUARY 31, 1997
They use a panel data set of 46 countries over the 1970¨C1989 period to investigate the relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth. They find a negative relationship between fiscal decentralization and growth in developing countries, but none in developed countries. Several explanations are offered for our findings.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION CONTRIBUTES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM STATE-LEVEL CROSS-SECTION DATA FOR THE UNITED STATES
NOBUO AKAI AND MASAYO SAKATA
22 MARCH 2002
This paper provides new evidence that fiscal decentralization contributes to economic growth, in contrast to previous studies that have denied such a contribution. Our new statelevel data for the United States enable us to estimate the effect of fiscal decentralization more objectively than previously, because the data set exhibits little cultural, historical, and institutional variation. We also provide the finding that the definition of fiscal decentralization is important in relation to the effect of fiscal decentralization on economic growth.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION, GOVERNANCE, AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE: A RECONSIDERATION
DANIEL TREISMAN
FEBRUARY 2006
In countries with tax-sharing systems, assigning local governments a large share of locally generated revenues is often thought to promote economic development. The more local officials benefit from local economic activity, the more supportive of business and less corrupt they should be, resulting in higher output. Some attribute China’s rapid growth to its high local retention rates and Russia’s 1990s stagnation to the central clawback of local revenues. I show that such arguments ignore an important actor in the game – the central government. If increasing the local tax share improves incentives for local authorities, it worsens them for central officials. The net effect on output is indeterminate.

RESUMEN EJECUTIVO POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
INSTITUTO DEL PERÚEl presente documentar analiza como el alejamiento y la dispersión poblacional han contribuido a la persistencia de la pobreza rural en el Perú, frustrando el acceso al mercado y la llegada de servicios estatales. La visión-sueño de un país integrado físicamente ha sido compartida por sucesivos presidentes, pero la investigación social ha dicho poco sobre el tema, y más bien ha enfatizado el poder y la dominación política como causas principales de la pobreza. La preocupación presidencial llevó a la formulación de una propuesta de investigación a través del Consejo Consultivo del Sector Público del CIES, planteándose un estudio para evaluar y documentar los presuntos obstáculos geográficos a la inclusión económica y social de la población rural.

COLOMBIA RURAL RAZONES PARA LA ESPERANZA
PNDU
2011
Hace un balance crítico de la situación actual de las zonas rurales colombianas analizando las necesidades más apremiantes de los pobladores en situación de vulnerabilidad y cuáles son sus capacidades de recuperación; cómo y por qué está concentrada la propiedad de la tierra y cuáles son los efectos de ello; de qué forma se ha ocupado y explotado el suelo; por qué el desempeño económico de este sector estratégico no ha sido el mejor; qué factores afectan el ejercicio de la democracia en los territorios; y finalmente, cuál ha sido el impacto del largo proceso de deterioro de las instituciones públicas responsables de orientar la marcha del sector agropecuario.
También realiza una propuesta hacia el logro de tres metas:
· La voluntad política y compromiso de la sociedad colombiana para equilibrar las prioridades para superar la pobreza, la desigualdad y remover algunas de las causas del conflicto.
· Optar por un modelo de desarrollo en el cual el bienestar de la gente sea el de la sostenibilidad ambiental y que promueva el fortalecimiento y la intervención oportuna del Estado.
· Incrementar las opciones de las políticas públicas.
Tomado de:

 

DESIGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE
RICARDO PAES DE BARROS, FRANCISCO H.G. FERREIRA, JOSE R. MOLINAS VEGA, JAIME SAAVEDRA CHANDUVI
2008
A lo largo de la última década, el crecimiento más acelerado y una política social más inteligente han revertido la tendencia en la pobreza de América Latina. Todavía en forma muy lenta y escasa pero muy evidente, el porcentaje de latinos pobres ha empezado a disminuir. Esto ha llevado los debates políticos y de políticas desde la pobreza hacia la inequidad, lo cual se puede esperar en una región que muestra la distribución de resultados del desarrollo (como ingreso, propiedad de la tierra y logros educativos) más regresiva del mundo. Este libro es una revelación en la medición de la oportunidad humana. Construye sofisticadas fórmulas para responder una pregunta más bien simple: ¿Cuánto influyen las circunstancias personales en el acceso de los niños a servicios básicos necesarios para una vida productiva? De más está decir que la creación de una metodología para medir la oportunidad humana y su aplicación en diversos países de una región es sólo un primer paso. Por un lado, continuarán las discusiones técnicas y validaciones científicas y con seguridad será necesario afinar el método. Por otro lado, aplicar la nueva herramienta a un solo país permitirá hacer los ajustes necesarios para que los resultados sean mucho más útiles a sus realidades de políticas. Asimismo, se podrían generar fascinantes lecciones comparativas al medir la oportunidad humana en los países desarrollados, como en todo Estados Unidos o en las naciones de Europa. Pero el principal mensaje de este libro es potente en sí mismo: es posible convertir la equidad en un propósito central del desarrollo, y por qué no, en su misma definición. Ese sea quizás su principal aporte.
Tomado de: http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/314801468276879155/Midiendo-la-desigualdad-de-oportunidades-en-America-Latina-y-el-Caribe
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONVERGENCE IN COLOMBIA – VICENTE ROYUELA
VICENTE ROYUELA, GUSTAVO ADOLFO GARCÍA
2010
EGDP has usually been used as a proxy for human well-being. Nevertheless, other social aspects should also be considered, such as life expectancy, infant mortality, educational enrolment and crime issues. With this paper we investigate not only economic convergence but also social convergence between regions in a developing country, Colombia, in the period 1975-2005. We consider several techniques in our analysis: sigma convergence, stochastic kernel estimations, and also several empirical models to find out the beta convergence parameter (cross section and panel estimates, with and without spatial dependence). The main results confirm that we can talk about convergence in Colombia in key social variables, although not in the classic economic variable, GDP per capita. We have also found that spatial autocorrelation reinforces convergence processes through deepening market and social factors, while isolation condemns regions to nonconvergence.

COLOMBIA DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO RECIENTE EN INFRAESTRUCTURA – BALANCEANDO LAS NECESIDADES SOCIALES Y PRODUCTIVAS DE INFRAESTRUCTURA
GERMÁN OSPINA
SEPTIEMBRE 1, 2004
Este documento apunta a una evaluación del sector de gas natural en Colombia y para hacer un análisis en el marco del informe de proyecto final (REDI), tiene en cuenta factores de análisis de toma de decisiones, y medidas de gestión, tanto de gobierno como de regulación. El documento también analiza el mercado colombiano del gas natural, con respecto a activos y quiebras.
Tomado de: http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/304821468027602197/Colombia-Desarrollo-economico-reciente-en-infrastructura-balanceando-las-necesidades-sociales-y-productivas-de-la-infraestructura

 

INEQUIDAD REGIONAL EN COLOMBIA
DARWIN CORTÉS, JUAN F. VARGAS
2012
Este documento hace un diagnostico multidimensional de las brechas regionales que existen en Colombia a nivel departamental y de su persistencia en el tiempo. Así mismo se estudian las causas de la inequidad regional. La evidencia presentada sugiere que las diferencias institucionales de largo plazo explican las desigualdades regionales actuales. Para el diagnóstico se utiliza un conjunto amplio de variables socioeconómicas incluyendo variables de ingreso y actividad económica, variables de capital humano, medidas de pobreza y desigualdad, variables de comportamiento político, variables de aislamiento geográfico, y variables de esfuerzo o dependencia fiscal. El documento también revisa algunas experiencias internacionales exitosas en la disminución de brechas regionales y plantea algunas sugerencias de política pública para el caso colombiano.
POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
RICHARD WEBB
MAYO, 2012

MEASURING THE BENEFITS OF AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: A SPATIAL HEDONIC APPROACH
CHONG WON KIM, TIM T. PHIPPS AND LUC ANSELIN
2003
The primary objective of this paper is to improve the methodology for estimating hedonic price functions when the data are inherently spatial. A spatial-econometric hedonic housing price model is developed and estimated for the Seoul metropolitan area to measure the marginal value of improvements in sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) concentrations. Diagnostic testing favored the spatial-lag model over the spatial error model. Results showed that SO2 pollution levels had a significant impact on housing prices while NOx pollution did not. The authors attribute this differential impact to the relatively higher levels of SO2 pollution when compared with pollution standards and the relative recency of the NOx pollution. Marginal WTP for a 4% improvement in mean SO2 concentrations is about $2333 or 1.4% of mean housing price.
SEMPIRICAL MODELS OF SPATIAL INTERDEPENDENCE
ROBERT J. FRANZESE, JR., JUDE C. HAY
8 AUGUST 2008
This article discusses the role of ‘spatial interdependence’ between units of analysis by using a symmetric weighting matrix for the units of observation whose elements reflect the relative connectivity between unit i and unit j. It starts by addressing spatial interdependence in political science. There are two workhorse regression models in empirical spatial analysis: spatial lag and spatial error models. The article then addresses OLS estimation and specification testing under the null hypothesis of no spatial dependence. It turns to the topic of assessing spatial lag models, and a discussion of spatial error models. Moreover, it reports the calculation of spatial multipliers. Furthermore, it presents several newer applications of spatial techniques in empirical political science research: SAR models with multiple lags, SAR models for binary dependent variables, and spatio-temporal autoregressive (STAR) models for panel data.
Tomado de: http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199286546.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199286546-e-25
SPACE IS MORE THAN GEOGRAPHY: USING SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
NATHANIEL BECK, KRISTIAN SKREDE GLEDITSCH, KYLE BEARDSLEY
2006
Although spatial econometrics is being used more frequently in political science, most applications are still based on geographic notions of distance. Here we argue that it is often more fruitful to consider political economy notions of distance, such as relative trade or common dyad membership. We also argue that the spatially autoregressive model usually (but not always) should be preferred to the spatially lagged error model. Finally, we consider the role of spatial econometrics in analyzing time-series–cross-section data, and show that a plausible (and testable) assumption allows for the simple introduction of space (however defined) into such analyses. We present examples of spatial analyses involving trade and democracy.
SPATIAL SPILLOVERS IN EMERGING MARKET SPREADS
EMANUELE BALDACCI, SALVATORE DELL’ERBA, TIGRAN POGHOSYAN
2011
They use novel spatial econometrics techniques to explore spillovers in the sovereign bond marketfor 24 emerging economies during 1995-2010. The paper extends the previous literature focusing on spillover effects from advanced to emerging economies by analyzing transmission of shocks across emerging markets. After controlling for the impact of global factors, we find strong evidence of spillovers from both sovereign spreads and macroeconomic fundamentals in neighboring emerging economies. In addition to the geographical proximity, the channels of spatial transmission include trade and financial linkages. The results of the paper highlight the importance of accounting not only for spillovers from advanced economies to emerging markets, but also across emerging markets when analyzing sovereign spreads.
SPACE AND GROWTH A SURVEY OF EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AND METHODS
MARIA ABREU, HENRI DE GROOT, RAYMOND J.G.M. FLORAX
2005
This paper reviews the empirical literature on growth and convergence that has addressed the importance of spatial factors. An important distinction in this literature is the one between absolute and relative location. The literature on absolute location predominantly uses non-spatial econometric techniques, and is strongly linked to the economic growth literature. In contrast, studies on relative location tend to be weakly linked to theory, but apply relatively sophisticated econometric techniques to account for spatial effects. Most studies of the latter type are regional in nature, although there is a growing interest in extending the analysis to a cross-country setting. Both regional and cross-country studies typically make use of so-called spatial process models. Rather than modelling the impediments of space and distance directly, spatial process models start from exogenously provided information about the spatial structure. Our review shows that the usage of simple spatial autoregressive lag and error models abounds in the spatial econometrics literature. We assess the appropriateness of such models, and identify areas of potential concern. The rather weak linkage between theory and operational models, the dominance of ‘global’ over ‘local’ spatial association patterns, and the implicit restrictions on spatial interaction induced by many of the habitual specifications of the spatial weights matrix concurrently constitute areas where improvements can be made.
GEOGRAPHY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN COLOMBIA: A MUNICIPAL APPROACH
FABIO SÁNCHEZ TORRES, JAIRO NÚÑEZ MÉNDEZ
JUNE 2000
The object of this paper is to determine the relationship between geographical variables and income per capita, income per capita growth, population density and population growth in Colombian municipalities. In order to carry out econometric estimations at the municipal level we constructed a set of geographical variables based on soil, climate and road maps. We obtained some other geographical variables from the Colombian Institute of Geography (IGAC) homogeneous zone statistics.
We found that geography affects both the level of municipal income per capita and its growth, being responsible for between 36% and 47% of the variance in municipal income per capita, and between 35% and 40% of the variance in municipal income per capita growth. It was established that, among the geographic variables, distance to domestic markets and soil type exercise the greatest influence on income per capita and its growth. Furthermore, geographical variables seem to be more significant for poor municipalities than rich ones. In poor municipalities, geography is responsible for between 25% and 32% of income per capita variance, and between 24% and 27% of income per capita growth variance. In contrast, in rich municipalities, geography is less important, being responsible for between 18% and 25% of income per capita variance and between 16% and 17% of income per capita growth variance. Thus, geography affects income and income growth via the productivity of the land, the availability of natural resources (such as water and rivers), the presence of tropical diseases, and agglomeration.
Although geography influences the fate of a region, that is not the end of the story. Human factors, both public policy and private intervention, also play an important role. Education, infrastructure and more efficient public institutions can boost regional economic growth, and can help poor regions to overcome the poverty trap of low income and low economic growth.
LA TOPOGRAFÍA ECONÓMICA DE COLOMBIA
LUIS ARMANDO GALVIS APONTE
2001
En el presente documento se analiza la distribución de la actividad económica y la población en Colombia. A partir de la representación de mapas temáticos se observa la gran concentración que existe en la población y la actividad económica en el centro del país. Se encuentra que más del 60% de la población y el 70% del PIB se localizan en la zona central. A través de índices de correlación espacial tales como el índice de Moran, Geary, Getis y Ord se evalúa la dependencia espacial de la actividad económica de los municipios, encontrándose importantes dependencias espaciales en los “antiguos departamentos”. En los demás municipios se encuentran correlaciones en la actividad económica muy bajas o no significativas, lo cual evidencia la débil integración que existe entre ellos.
CITIES, TERRITORIES, AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH: UNRAVELING URBAN–RURAL LINKAGES IN CHILE, COLOMBIA, AND MEXICO
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, FERNANDO CARRIAZO, BENJAMÍN JARA, FÉLIX MODREGO AND ISIDRO SOLOAGA
2015
We explore the effects of the growing urbanization of rural areas in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico and investigate whether the presence of small- and medium-sized cities within rural–urban territories enhances economic growth and reduces poverty and income inequality compared to deep-rural and metropolitan territories. For Chile and Colombia, our results suggest that these urban centers can make a greater contribution to the rate of economic growth and poverty reduction in rural–urban territories compared to deep-rural ones, but in some cases with a rise in income inequality. The mechanisms through which urban centers affect the dynamics of territorial development are country-specific.
EXTRATERRITORIAL INVESTMENTS, ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS, AND COLLECTIVE ACTION IN LATIN AMERICA
PABLO OSPINA PERALTA, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON, PATRIC HOLLENSTEIN, ILANA NUSSBAUMC AND EDUARDO RAMÍREZ
2014
A growing number of extraterritorial private-sector actors, often in partnership with the state, are expanding the frontiers of extractive and primary export economies to new rural territories in Latin America. This paper analyzes the conditions that might drive meaningful efforts to address environmental problems in territories dominated by large, externally controlled natural resource-based activities. It studies three cases: salmon aquaculture in Chiloe (Chile), fruit growing in O’Higgins (Chile), and gas production in Tarija (Bolivia). We conclude that such efforts are unlikely to occur unless environmental problems directly threaten the short-term viability of the activities or social movements emerge to demand change.
A LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS IN LATIN AMERICA
FÉLIX MODREGO AND JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ
2015
This paper summarizes a study of changes in per-capita income, monetary poverty, and income distribution in 9,045 subnational administrative units of nine Latin American countries between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. The results largely support spatial convergence of mean household incomes, although the estimates indicate it has been slow. Territorial inequality is found to be persistent and reduces the pro-poor effect of local income growth. Although national-context specific, the estimates also indicate that territorial development dynamics are influenced by the structural features of the territories. In view of the evidence, territorial development policies in Latin America seem well warranted.
QUESTIONING TERRITORIAL COHESION (UN)EQUAL ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST
JIRÍ MALÝ
28 JUNE 2016
Although the debates about access to services of general interest have been at the core of the EU territorial cohesion discourse since the late 1990s, the impact of unequal accessibility to living conditions has yet be the subject of close inspection. The paper examines the relationship between the accessibility of services of general interest and demographic and socio-economic conditions in a specific Czech region. The analysis reveals inter-municipal disparities and identifies spatially excluded areas. Despite the negative association of insufficient access with education and depopulation characteristics, the results suggest that demographic and socio-economic development stems from a more complex set of factors.
CO-CREATING THE URBAN FUTURE – THE AGENDA OF METROPOLISES, CITIES AND TERRITORIES
UCLG
2016
This Chapter of the UCLG Gold Report IV Co-creating the Urban Future: The Agenda for Metropolises, Cities, and Territories describes the Intermediary Cities: The Nexus Between the Local and the Global system of cities. It provides the key definitions necessary for a thorough analysis of the phenomenon of i-cities, and their place in the broader picture of urbanization in an increasingly globalized and complex world. Section 2 investigates in detail the concept of intermediary cities through analysis of their main facets. This includes: their scale, functions, location and connectivity; the distinctive governance and financial architecture they have developed to preserve their role in national urban systems; the role of urban planning and design to promote and protect their sustainability; the specific role they play in local economic development, with a focus on the rural-urban linkages they help foster; and the potential benefits they can reap from investment in identity, technology, and equality. Section 3 examines i-cities in the different regional contexts across the world. Finally, Section 4 concludes this chapter with a series of recommendations and key messages for i-cities, and how they can actively contribute to today’s global development and urban agendas, with a particular focus on the aforementioned New Urban Agenda.
Tomado de: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Co-creating-the-Urban-Future-The-Agenda-for-Metropolises-Cities-and-Territories
RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016 – STRUCTURAL AND RURAL TRANSFORMATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

2016
This chapter looks at the structural and rural transformations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) during the first decade of the twenty-first century, focusing on the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, which account for 94 per cent of the rural population of LAC.
These countries underwent a vast rural transformation in the second half of the twentieth century, but most had four features in common: spatial integration as functional rural-urban territories formed where the majority of the rural population lives, diversification of rural economies from agriculture, transformation of agrifood systems and value chains under the dominance of corporations, and a blurring of the cultural distance between rural and urban youth owing to rural roads and communications technologies (Berdegué et al. 2014).
These factors have influenced each other in multiple ways, and are both causes and consequences of the structural and rural shifts. The old rural and fundamentally agrarian societies have been replaced by new types of rural societies, in which agriculture is still important but no longer predominant.
By focusing on roughly the fi rst decade of this century, we discuss the advanced stages of the two transformations of a still-developing region. Here, rural inequality remains extremely high, rural societies have already undergone tremendous change, and family farming has survived the shock of very rapid – and in some cases radical – liberalization, and yet keeps on contributing to the rural economy and to society at large.
Our findings are consistent with the main hypotheses of this report, namely that all countries(except Bolivia) that have reduced rural poverty faster than the region as a whole have also experienced rapid structural or rural transformation,or both, but that not all countries that undergo a transformation cut rural poverty rapidly. Every country with rapid rural poverty reduction has also narrowed rural income inequality faster than the regional average, except Chile.
These fi ndings can be interpreted to suggest that it is very diffi cult to reduce rural poverty quickly without rapid structural change in societies, but that such transformation by itself does not guarantee fast poverty reduction. Our findings do not support the oft-heard claim that the recent transformations of rural societies are anti-rural poor. Nor do they support the view that, if we transform the rural and national economies (and add social protection), poverty will automatically fall. What our analysis shows, instead, is that transformation and smart rural development policies are both needed if rapid rural poverty reduction is a national goal.
However, only three countries managed to do better than the regional average in all three dimensions of our analysis (structural and rural transformations and social inclusion). Why are they not doing better, as are countries in other regions that are less advanced along the transformation curve? Three proximate factors appear to be at play: in most countries, agriculture has not increased its productivity fast enough, other sectors of the economy have not generated enough high-productivity jobs, and rural economic growth and social-inclusion processes remain highly concentrated in certain territories, resulting in low rural poverty elasticities of growth.
The analysis of this region over this period is useful from an international perspective for at least two reasons: fi rst, LAC allows us to see how structural changes in societies, at large, and in rural societies, in particular, can coexist with social exclusion, and that deep and rapid economic change does not always bring about development for all. Second, LAC can mirror the transitions in other developing regions, considering that over the past 30 years most of the LAC countries moved several steps up the scale towards becoming high-income and low rural poverty nations. As countries in other developing regions are undergoing the changes that LAC has already undergone, they may wish to review insights from LAC.
EXPLAINING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUE, JAVIER ESCOBAL AND ANTHONY BEBBINGTON
2014
This article summarizes the results of a research program conducted in 11 Latin America countries, addressing two questions: (1) what factors determine territorial development dynamics that lead to economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved income distribution? (2) What can be done to stimulate this kind of territorial dynamics? We highlight five “bundles of factors” that we found in 19 case studies of territorial development, as well as the role of social territorial coalitions that appear to be necessary for territorial dynamics that lead to economic growth with social inclusion. The article calls for territorial development policies to complement sectoral policies.
RETHINKING PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT
GUSTAVO CRESPI, EDUARDO FERNÁNDEZ-ARIAS, ERNESTO STEIN
2014
THE IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY
JOSHUA GRAFF ZIVIN AND MATTHEW NEIDELL
2012
INFLEXIBLE PRICES AND PROCYCLICAL PRODUCTIVITY
JULIO J. ROTEMBERG AND LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS
1990
PRODUCTIVITY
JOHN R. PHILLIPS
1971
EQUITY PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH AND ‘THE NEW ECONOMY
JAKOB B. MADSEN AND E. PHILIP DAVIS
2006
INTEGRATED GDP-PRODUCTIVITY ACCOUNTS
MICHAEL J. HARPER, BRENT R. MOULTON, STEVEN ROSENTHAL AND DAVID B. WASSHAUSEN
MAY, 2009
RACIAL MIX AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY
OMER R. GALLE, CANDACE HINSON WISWELL AND JEFFREY A. BURR
FEB., 1985
ON INTERINDUSTRY DIFFERENCES IN ABSOLUTE PRODUCTIVITY
WILLIAM J. BAUMOL AND EDWARD N. WOLFF
DEC., 1984
THE PRODUCTIVITY GAP BETWEEN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES: TRENDS AND CAUSES
BART VAN ARK, MARY O’MAHONY AND MARCEL P. TIMMER
WINTER, 2008
PRODUCTIVITY IN SERVICES: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
BART VAN ARK, ERIK MONNIKHOF AND NANNO MULDER
APR., 1999
URBANIZATION AND SPIDER DIVERSITY: INFLUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF HABITAT STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY
E. SHOCHAT, W. L. STEFANOV, M. E. A. WHITEHOUSE AND S. H. FAETH
FEB., 2004
PRODUCTIVITY CONCEPTS AND MEASURES
HARALD FADINGER AND PABLO FLEISS
MARCH 16, 2010
TRADE AND SECTORAL PRODUCTIVITY
HARALD FADINGER AND PABLO FLEISS
MARCH 16, 2010
POLITICS, POLICIES AND THE DYNAMICS OF AGGREGATE PRODUCTIVITY IN COLOMBIA
MARCELA ESLAVA, MARCELA MELÉNDEZ
SEPTEMBER 2009
CONCEPTS AND MEASURES OF PRODUCTIVITY: AN INTRODUCTION
W. ERWIN DIEWERT , ALICE O. NAKAMURA
2005
PRODUCTIVITY IN CITIES: SELF-SELECTION AND SORTING
ANTHONY J. VENABLES
20 DECEMBER 2010
THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CITIES
LEO SVEIKAUSKAS
1975
URBAN SCALING AND THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION FOR CITIES
JOSÉ LOBO, LUÍS M. A. BETTENCOURT, DEBORAH STRUMSKY, GEOFFREY B. WEST
2012
THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY OF URBAN AREAS: DISENTANGLING GENERAL SCALE EFFECTS FROM LOCAL EXCEPTIONALITY
JOSÉ LOBO, LUÍS M. A. BETTENCOURT, DEBORAH STRUMSKY, GEOFFREY B. WEST
2011
INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY PATTERNS: ACCOUNTING FOR INPUT QUALITY, INFRASTRUCTURE, AND RESEARCH
BARBARA J. CRAIG, PHILIP G. PARDEY AND JOHANNES ROSEBOOM
NOV., 1997
THE PRODUCTIVITY ADVANTAGES OF LARGE CITIES: DISTINGUISHING AGGLOMERATION FROM FIRM SELECTION
PIERRE-PHILIPPE COMBES, GILLES DURANTON, LAURENT GOBILLON, DIEGO PUGA AND SÉBASTIEN ROUX
NOVEMBER 2012
PRODUCTIVITY AND THE DENSITY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
ANTONIO CICCONE AND ROBERT E. HALL
MAR., 1996
PRODUCTIVITY AND SOCIAL INDICATORS
KRISHNAMURTI CHANDRASEKAR
JAN., 1981
INCENTIVE CONTRACTS AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY
BENJAMIN BENTAL AND DOMINIQUE DEMOUGIN
AUG., 2006
SPECIFIC PRODUCTIVITY
WALTER M. ADRIANCE
NOV., 1914
PRODUCTIVITY DIFFERENCES
DARON ACEMOGLU AND FABRIZIO ZILIBOTTI
MAY, 2001
URBAN PRODUCTIVITY-CITY OR INDUSTRY SIZE
VEIKAUSKAS, GOWDY, FUNK.
1988
URBAN STRUCTURE AND GROWTH
ESTEBAN ROSSI-HANSBERG AND MARK L. J. WRIGHT
2007
AGGLOMERATION AND HOURS WORKED
STUART S. ROSENTHAL AND WILLIAM C. STRANGE
2008
ECONOMIC STRUCTURE, PRODUCTIVITY, AND INFRASTRUCTURE QUALITY IN SOUTHERN MEXICO
UWE DEICHMANN, MARIANNE FAY, JUN KOO, SOMIK V. LALL
MAY 2003
URBAN ECONOMIES AND OCCUPATION SPACE: CAN THEY GET ‘‘THERE’’ FROM ‘‘HERE’’?
RACHATA MUNEEPEERAKUL, JOSE ́ LOBO, SHADE T. SHUTTERS, ANDRES GOMEZ-LIEVANO,MURAD R. QUBBAJ
2013
FROM POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY TO POLITICAL ECONOMY
ROBERT L. LINEBERRY
NOV., 1994
SEARCH, SORTING, AND URBAN AGGLOMERATION
CHRISTOPHER H. WHEELER
OCTOBER 2001
URBANIZATION AND GROWTH
MICHAEL SPENCE, PATRICIA CLARKE ANNEZ, ROBERT M. BUCKLEY
2009
THE MISALLOCATION OF HOUSING UNDER RENT CONTROL
EDWARD L. GLAESER AND ERZO F. P. LUTTMER
SEP., 2003
WHY HAVE HOUSING PRICES GONE UP?
EDWARD L. GLAESER, JOSEPH GYOURKO AND RAVEN E. SAKS
MAY, 2005
URBAN DECLINE AND DURABLE HOUSING
EDWARD L. GLAESER AND JOSEPH GYOURKO
APRIL 2005
HOUSING BOOMS AND CITY CENTERS
EDWARD L. GLAESER, JOSHUA D. GOTTLIEB AND KRISTINA TOBIO
MAYO 2012
ARE CITIES DYING?
EDWARD L. GLAESER
SPRING, 1998
WHAT CAUSES INDUSTRY AGGLOMERATION? EVIDENCE FROM COAGGLOMERATION PATTERNS
GLENN ELLISON, EDWARD L. GLAESER AND WILLIAM R. KERR
JUNE 2010
GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION AS A DYNAMIC PROCESS
GUY DUMAIS, GLENN ELLISON AND EDWARD L. GLAESER
MAY, 2002
COLOMBIA URBANIZATION REVIEW
TAIMUR SAMAD, NANCY LOZANO-GRACIA, AND ALEXANDRA PANMAN
2012
CLUSTERS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION
AARON CHATTERJI, EDWARD GLAESER, AND WILLIAM KERR
2014
THE CONTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT TO ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY
TIM HAZLEDINE, STUART DONOVAN AND JOHN BOLLAND
2013
POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
GARY S. BECKER, EDWARD L. GLAESER AND KEVIN M. MURPHY
MAY, 1999
URBAN SPATIAL STRUCTURE
ALEX ANAS, RICHARD ARNOTT AND KENNETH A. SMALL
SEP., 1998
JOHANNESBURG 2030: THE ECONOMIC CONTOURS OF A “LINKING GLOBAL CITY”
CHRISTIAN M. ROGERSON AND JAYNE M. ROGERSON
2015
PRODUCTIVITY AND THE DENSITY OF HUMAN CAPITAL
JAISON R. ABEL, ISHITA DEY, TODD M. GABE
2012
DETERMINANTS OF CITY GROWTH IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
APRIL 2015
AGGLOMERATION AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
GIANMARCO OTTAVIANO AND JACQUES-FRANCOIS THISSE
11 NOVEMBER 2003
MICRO-FOUNDATIONS OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES
GILLES DURANTON, DIEGO PUGA
MARCH 2003
DETERMINANTS OF CITY GROWTH IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
APRIL 2015
¿POR QUÉ CHIAPAS ES POBRE?
DAN LEVY, RICARDO HAUSMANN, MIGUEL ANGEL SANTOS, LUIS ESPINOZA Y MIGUEL FLORES
2016
AGGLOMERATION EFFECTS IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
AUGUST 2015
THE CONDITION OF BRITAIN
KAYTE LAWTON, GRAEME COOKE, NICK PEARCE
2014