Empleo, pobreza y desigualdad


IDENTIFYING FUNCTIONAL REGIONS IN AUSTRALIA USING HIERARCHICAL AGGREGATION TECHNIQUES
WILLIAM MITCHELL, ANTHEA BILL, MARTIN WATTS
NOVEMBER 2007

This paper continues our work focused on developing a new socio-economic geography for Australia such that the chosen spatial aggregation of data is based on an analysis of economic behaviour. The underlying hypothesis is that the development of a geographical classification based on underlying economic behaviour will provide new insights into critical issues of regional performance, including unemployment differentials, the impact of industry, infrastructure and changes in local public expenditure on local labour markets. As a precursor to detailed work on the 2006 Census of Population and Housing data, we establish the proof of concept in this paper of the Intramax methodology using 2001 Journey-to-Work data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) for the state of New South Wales. The functional regionalisation generated by the Intramax method is then tested using ABS labour force data. We compare 2001 ABS Census of Population and Housing data aggregated by the ABS labour force regions to the same data aggregated using our functional regions. The results demonstrate the potential value of this technique for the development of a new geography.
Tomado de: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-5871.2009.00631.x/abstract

TERRITORIOS FUNCIONALES EN CHILE
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, BENJAMÍN JARA, RICARDO FUENTEALBA, JAIME TOHÁ, FÉLIX MODREGO, ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN Y NAIM BRO
2011

La inmensa mayoría de las personas, organizaciones y empresas en Chile no realizan sus principales funciones en el espacio de una comuna sino que en espacios mayores, pluri-comunales, que se llaman territorios funcionales. El documento describe estos grupos con base en variables de siete dimensiones: demografía; ingreso, pobreza y distribución del ingreso; empleo; educación; vivienda y sus servicios; gobierno local; participación social y política.
El estudio demuestra que determinadas ciudades intermedias confieren capacidad de crecimiento y aceleran la reducción de la pobreza en los territorios que se articulan en torno de ellas. No obstante, los gobiernos municipales de las comunas periféricas de cada territorio se ven menguados en su capacidad de oferta a los ciudadanos, además de no poseer el necesario correlato para las integración de los mercados laborales, de los servicios, y de las redes sociales de las personas en espacios mayores a la comuna, perdiendo oportunidades en desarrollo económico, gestión ambiental, infraestructura, cultura, etc.

RURAL TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENTS
ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN, JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ
MARCH 2004

LA ESTRATEGIA DE MICRORREGIONES
RICARDO CARMONA ABREGO

 

ROADS, EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
CHRISTIAN VOLPE MARTINCUSA, JERÓNIMO CARBALLOB, ANA CUSOLITOC
2015

Domestic road programs are often justified on the basis of their presumed positive effects on firms’ exports and accordingly on firms’ employment. In this paper we evaluate this policy claim for Peru, a developing country whose regions were exposed to an asymmetric infrastructure shock. In so doing, we take advantage of detailed geo-referenced data on firm-level trade for the period 2003–2010 as well as on recent and historical road infrastructure. In particular, to identify the impacts of interest, we first exploit the dimensions of this dataset to account for regional-sectoral and even firm-level confounding factors through extensive sets of fixed effects. In addition, we conduct placebo exercises and carry out instrumental variable estimations whereby we instrument recent changes in the road network with the pre-Columbian Inca road network. Estimates concur in suggesting that improvements in transport infrastructure had a significant positive impact on firms’ exports and thereby on firms’ job growth.

TRANSPORTATION COSTS AND THE SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
STEPHEN J. REDDING, MATTHEW A. TURNER
JUNE 2014

This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between the spatial distribution of economic activity and transportation costs. We develop a multi-region model of economic geography that we use to understand the general equilibrium implications of transportation infrastructure improvements within and between locations for wages, population, trade and industry composition. Guided by the predictions of this model, we review the empirical literature on the effects of transportation infrastructure improvements on economic development, paying particular attention to the use of exogenous sources of variation in the construction of transportation infrastructure. We examine evidence from different spatial scales, between and within cities. We outline a variety of areas for further research, including distinguishing reallocation from growth and dynamics.

ROADS, EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
CHRISTIAN VOLPE MARTINCUSA, JERÓNIMO CARBALLOB, ANA CUSOLITOC
2015

Domestic road programs are often justified on the basis of their presumed positive effects on firms’ exports and accordingly on firms’ employment. In this paper we evaluate this policy claim for Peru, a developing country whose regions were exposed to an asymmetric infrastructure shock. In so doing, we take advantage of detailed geo-referenced data on firm-level trade for the period 2003–2010 as well as on recent and historical road infrastructure. In particular, to identify the impacts of interest, we first exploit the dimensions of this dataset to account for regional-sectoral and even firm-level confounding factors through extensive sets of fixed effects. In addition, we conduct placebo exercises and carry out instrumental variable estimations whereby we instrument recent changes in the road network with the pre-Columbian Inca road network. Estimates concur in suggesting that improvements in transport infrastructure had a significant positive impact on firms’ exports and thereby on firms’ job growth.

CONCEPTUALIZING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUE, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON, JAVIER ESCOBAL
2015

This article is the introduction to a volume containing findings from a program conducted over five years in 11 Latin America countries, to answer three questions: (1) Are there rural territories that have experienced simultaneous economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved distribution of income?; (2) What factors determine these territorial dynamics?, and; (3) What can be done to stimulate and promote this kind of territorial dynamics? The article outlines the analytical and policy issues and the methodology, summarizes the remaining 10 papers in the collection, and presents a conceptual framework that itself is one of the results of the program.

EXPLAINING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUE, JAVIER ESCOBAL, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON
2015

This article summarizes the results of a research program conducted in 11 Latin America countries, addressing two questions: (1) what factors determine territorial development dynamics that lead to economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved income distribution? (2) What can be done to stimulate this kind of territorial dynamics? We highlight five “bundles of factors” that we found in 19 case studies of territorial development 1, as well as the role of social territorial coalitions that appear to be necessary for territorial dynamics that lead to economic growth with social inclusion. The article calls for territorial development policies to complement sectorial policies.

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT RURAL POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM INDIAN DISTRICTS
MASSIMILIANO CALÌ, CARLO MENON
2013

Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983–1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas. The results obtained through an instrumental variable estimation suggest that this effect is causal in nature and is largely attributable to the positive spillovers of urbanization on the rural economy rather than to the movement of the rural poor to urban areas. This rural poverty-reducing effect of urbanization is primarily explained by increased demand for local agricultural products and, to a lesser extent, by urban-rural remittances, the rural land/population ratio, and rural nonfarm employment.

EL IMPACTO DE LA INFRAESTRUCTURA VIAL EN LOS HOGARES RURALES COLOMBIANOS. ¿HACIA DÓNDE VAN LAS VÍAS?
CARLOS FELIPE SÁNCHEZ ROJAS
2016

Este documento estima el impacto diferenciado por cuartiles de riqueza de una intervención vial en las variables de consumo, ingreso y producción con base en datos de la Encuesta Longitudinal Colombiana de la Universidad de los Andes. Los resultados muestran que las vías aumentan 276,400 pesos el consumo comprado para los hogares más ricos y 211,100 pesos para los más pobres. Con menores costos de transacción y mayor integración a los mercados, los hogares agrícolas reducen su número de productos agrícolas, llevándolos hacia el monocultivo y una reducción sostenida en el autoconsumo. Asimismo, se presentan rendimientos decrecientes en el número de intervenciones sobre los niveles de consumo, ingreso y riqueza. Una intervención vial reduce la pobreza rural en un 2.3% y la pobreza extrema en 1%.

POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
RICHARD WEBB
2016

El alejamiento y la dispersión poblacional, ¿han sido causas mayores de la persistente pobreza rural? La literatura peruana dice poco sobre el tema, y enfatiza más bien el poder y la dominación política. Sin embargo, existen varias evidencias que apoyan la hipótesis: la correlación estadística entre pobreza y urbanización, la nueva teoría del crecimiento que enfatiza el poder de la cercanía, estudios de impacto de los caminos y de la telecomunicación, y dos análisis econométricos que constatan un efecto significante de la aglomeración y distancia sobre el ingreso familiar. La evidencia más concluyente es la coincidencia entre la masiva expansión de caminos y acceso a las telecomunicaciones, y el despegue histórico en el ingreso y las condiciones de vida rurales desde los años noventa.
Tomado de: http://repositorio.minedu.gob.pe/handle/123456789/1319

SECONDARY TOWNS AND POVERTY REDUCTION REFOCUSING THE URBANIZATION AGENDA
LUC CHRISTIAENSEN, RAVI KANBUR
2016

This review is framed around the exploration of a central hypothesis: A shift in public investment toward secondary towns from big cities will improve poverty reduction performance. Of course the hypothesis raises many questions. What exactly is the dichotomy of secondary towns versus big cities? What is the evidence for the contribution of secondary towns versus cities to poverty reduction? What are the economic mechanisms for such a differential contribution and how does policy interact with them? The review finds preliminary evidence and arguments in support of the hypothesis, but the impacts of policy on poverty are quite complex even in simple settings, and the question of secondary towns and poverty reduction is an open area for research and policy analysis.

TRANSFORMACIONES RURALES Y AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR EN AMÉRICA LATINA, UNA MIRADA A TRAVÉS DE LAS ENCUESTAS DE HOGARES
ADRIÁN G. RODRÍGUEZ
2016

El documento tiene como objetivo informar sobre el proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural en países de América Latina y el Caribe durante la primera década del presente siglo. En línea con lo planteado por la CEPAL, se entiende por cambio estructural un proceso de transformación caracterizado por cuatro elementos: i) diversificación en la estructura productiva; ii) más encadenamientos entre sectores productivos; iii) incremento en la importancia relativa de actividades intensivas en conocimiento; y iv) inserción en mercados internacionales de rápido crecimiento. El documento revisa algunos de los principales cambios estructurales que se han dado en el mundo rural durante las últimas décadas, con énfasis en temas demográficos y de mercado de trabajo, así como de brechas estructurales que persisten. Además, se presenta una aproximación descriptiva del efecto del proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural sobre la agricultura familiar, a partir de una concepción del cambio estructural restringida al primer elemento. La reducción en el peso del empleo agrícola, el incremento en el empleo de las mujeres (sobre todo en actividades no agrícolas), el incremento del empleo asalariado versus la caída del empleo por cuenta propia agrícola, y el incremento de la residencia urbana entre los empleados agrícolas son cuatro transformaciones significativas que se presentaron a lo largo de la década anterior en el mercado de trabajo rural. Desde el punto de vista de la dinámica del mercado de trabajo, la principal expresión del proceso de cambio estructural en el medio rural es la reducción en la importancia relativa del empleo agrícola, sobre todo del empleo por cuenta propia y familiar sin remuneración versus el incremento del empleo no agrícola, especialmente del asalariado. El documento destaca la necesidad de una gestión más integrada de las políticas públicas en el mundo rural.

CIUDADES RURALES DE CHILE
JULIO BERDEGUÉ, ESTEBAN JARA, FÉLIX MODREGO, XIMENA SANCLEMENTE Y ALEXANDER SCHEJTMAN
2010

El presente estudio centra su análisis en las dinámicas económicas y poblacionales de aquellas ciudades intermedias que se ubican en comunas rurales en Chile, a las que llamamos Ciudades Rurales (CRs). Chile al igual que en el resto de América Latina, es diversa en grado y tipo. La realidad de una ciudad rural es diferente a la de una metrópoli, no sólo en su tamaño sino que en las relaciones con su entorno y con las actividades económicas primarias. Una ciudad rural es también distinta de una aldea -nuevamente- no sólo por su tamaño sino que por el tipo de relaciones sociales que sus habitantes establecen entre sí, por los servicios que reúne, y por la base económica que ofrece a su población.

SPATIAL INTERACTION MODELS WITH INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL DATA FOR EXPLAINING LABOR FLOWS AND DEVELOPING LOCAL LABOR MARKETS
A. CHAKRABORTY, M.A. BEAMONTEC, A.E. GELFAND, M.P. ALONSO , P. GARGALLO , M. SALVADOR
2012

As a result of increased mobility patterns of workers, explaining labor flows and partitioning regions into local labor markets (LLMs) have become important economic issues. For the former, it is useful to understand jointly where individuals live and where they work. For the latter, such markets attempt to delineate regions with a high proportion of workers both living and working. To address these questions, we separate the problem into two stages. First, we introduce a stochastic modeling approach using a hierarchical spatial interaction specification at the individual level, incorporating individual-level covariates, origin (O) and destination (D) covariates, and spatial structure. We fit the model within a Bayesian framework. Such modeling enables posterior inference regarding the importance of these components as well as the O–D matrix of flows. Nested model comparison is available as well. For computational convenience, we start with a minimum market configuration (MMC) upon which our model is overlaid. At the second stage, after model fitting and inference, we turn to LLM creation. We introduce a utility with regard to the performance of an LLM partition and, with posterior samples; we can obtain the posterior distribution of the utility for any given LLM specification which we view as a partition of the MMC. We further provide an explicit algorithm to obtain good partitions according to this utility, employing these posterior distributions. However, the space of potential market partitions is huge and we discuss challenges regarding selection of the number of markets and comparison of partitions using this utility. Our approach is illustrated using a rich dataset for the region of Aragón in Spain. In particular, we analyze the full dataset and also a sample. Future data collection will arise as samples of the working population so assessing population level inference from the sample is useful.

THE DELINEATION OF 21ST CENTURY LOCAL LABOUR MARKET AREAS: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND A RESEARCH AGENDA
JOSÉ M. CASADO-DÍAZ, MIKE COOMBES
2011

The paper reviews international scientific research on the delineation of local labour market areas (LLMAs) used in a range of contrasting countries for administrative and statistical purposes. The concept of LLMA is discussed, emphasising the spatial ‘clustering’ of interaction between labour supply and demand. The paper develops a taxonomy of methods and suggests that identifying best practice has so far been held back by a lack of clear criteria for objectively evaluating different methods. The paper then outlines a research agenda for further development of LLMA delineation methods, including the suggestion of more cross-national research.

THE IDENTIFICATION OF FUNCTIONAL REGIONS: THEORY, METHODS, AND APPLICATIONS
CHARLIE KARLSSON . MICHAEL OLSSON
2006

A functional region is characterised by a high frequency of intraregional interaction. The text analyses how functional regions can be identified by using labour market data. Three approaches are applied in this task, named the local labour market, commuting zone, and accessibility approach, respectively. The text includes an application using the Fyrstad region. The situation is also studied at two points in time. The outcomes using the different approaches are compared, and the results combined have a richer flavour.
proaches are compared, and the results combined have a richer flavour.
151. Commuting Zones and Labor Market Areas

ESTUDIO IDENTIFICACIÓN DE LOCALIDADES EN CONDICIONES DE AISLAMIENTO 2012
DIVISIÓN DE POLÍTICAS Y ESTUDIOS DEPARTAMENTO DE ESTUDIOS Y EVALUACIÓN UNIDAD DE ANÁLISIS TERRITORIAL
2012

La presente entrega corresponde a los resultados de la aplicación de una propuesta metodológica para la identificación de las localidades aisladas del país y el cálculo de su aislamiento relativo. Como se verá, se trata de un estudio técnicamente complejo, entre otras razones, porque analiza más de 36.000 localidades. El documento consta de un apartado metodológico que explica de manera detallada los pasos y etapas metodológicas del estudio; posteriormente presenta los resultados y un análisis por macrozonas; finalmente entrega un conjunto de mapas y tablas que identifican las localidades en condición de aislamiento con su respectiva población, así como también el índice de aislamiento para cada una de las localidades analizadas, que supera las 36 mil. Para el momento de la publicación de este estudio se contó con una restricción importante, relacionada con el número de población que habita en las localidades chilenas, y tiene relación con la procedencia de este dato.
Tomado de: http://www.ciren.cl/cgi-bin/cedoc/wxis?IsisScript=plus.xis&mfn=013764&base=biblo

DO LOCAL OFFICIALS KNOW SOMETHING WE DON’T? DECENTRALIZATION OF TARGETED TRANSFERS IN ALBANIA
HAROLD ALDERMAN
2000

Albania provides a small amount of social assistance to nearly 20% of its population through a system which allows a degree of community discretion in determining distribution. This study indicates that relative to other safety net programs in low-income countries, social assistance in Albania is fairly well targeted to the poor. Moreover, the poverty targeting exceeds that which could be expected on the basis of proxy indicators of targeting alone; communes appear to be using local information unlikely to be obtained on the basis of a questionnaire or formula. This remains the case conditional on the level of funding allocated from the central government. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

THE CONSEQUENCES OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON POVERTY AND INCOME EQUALITY
CRISTIAN F. SEPULVEDA, JORGE MARTINEZ-VAZQUEZ
2010

Many countries around the world are currently pursuing policies for poverty reduction and improving income distribution. Many of these same countries are also aggressively implementing fiscal decentralization reforms. Although fiscal decentralization, poverty and the distribution of income have been the subject of extensive separate theoretical and empirical research, to date we have little understanding of what may be the impact of fiscal decentralization on poverty and inequality. This paper sets out to shed some light on those relationships. After reviewing the literature addressing different aspects of these relationships, the paper describes the possible channels through which fiscal decentralization might affect poverty and income inequalities. We also carry out an empirical analysis with panel data for a large number of countries at different stages of development covering the period 1971-2000. We find that fiscal decentralization may have significant effects on poverty and inequality. In particular, fiscal decentralization appears to reduce poverty as long as the share of sub-national expenditures is not greater than one third of total government expenditures. Fiscal decentralization appears to also help reduce income inequality only if the general government represents a significant share of the economy (twenty percent or more).

DECENTRALIZATION AND THE LIMITS TO POVERTY REDUCTION: FINDINGS FROM GHANA
GORDON CRAWFORD
2008

Decentralization has been widely implemented throughout the developing world. Its proponents, notably international donor agencies, claim that democratic local government is more responsive to local citizens’ needs, inclusive of those of the majority poor, thus resulting in poverty reduction. Yet evidence remains far from conclusive and this paper challenges such claims. After reviewing recent surveys of the linkage between decentralization and poverty reduction, this paper undertakes a case study of Ghana. Findings from primary data indicate that the impact of the District Assembly system on local poverty has been limited, at best. In seeking to explain such limits to poverty reduction, attention is focused on the national context of decentralization where structural constraints are identified, which are largely intended to maintain central government control. Such obstacles challenge some of the assumptions and expectations of decentralization advocates. It is concluded that the notion of “decentralization from above” is paradoxical, with genuine devolution of power and local poverty reduction likely to require political struggles from below.

DECENTRALIZING ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAM DELIVERY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
PRANAB BARDHAN, DILIP MOOKHERJEE
NOVEMBER 2000

We study effects on accountability in government service delivery of decentralizing administration of an antipoverty program. While governments at both central and local levels are vulnerable to anti-poor policy biases owing to political capture, centralized delivery systems are additionally prone to bureaucratic corruption owing to problems in monitoring bureaucratic performance. Decentralizing the delivery system promotes cost-effectiveness and improves intra-regional targeting at low program scales. But inter-regional targeting may deteriorate, as central grants to high poverty regions shrink, owing to high capture of local governments by local elites in such regions.

DOES DECENTRALIZATION SERVE THE POOR?
JOACHIM VON BRAUN, ULRIKE GROTE
NOVEMBER 2000

How do different forms of decentralisation affect poverty? Can decentralisation promote participation from the poorest sectors of society? Does decentralisation improve the poverty reducing public services such as health and education? There are strong calls for decentralisation in the name of poverty reduction, however the effects of decentralisation on poverty has only recently been considered.
This paper, presented to the November 2000 IMF Conference on Fiscal Decentralisation in Washington D.C., considers the direct and indirect affects of decentralisation on poverty issues. Types of decentralisation – political, administrative and fiscal – are defined, and their rationale briefly explained, with specific reference to linkages with poverty reduction. The paper continues to provide cross-country comparisons and examples from country studies that illustrate the various effects decentralisation can have on the poor.
Decentralisation is a tool used to enable civil society to participate in the policy process. Such participation has preconditions related to levels of education and empowerment. This paper contends that these may not be met by the poorest in society. If the poor cannot participate in the governance of public goods and services, the ability of improved services to have a positive impact on low-income groups becomes unclear. Other key findings include:
1. While information and transaction costs may be lower in a centralised system as it has a greater ability to gather, process and disseminate information, decentralisation gives control rights to people who hold information and provides incentives to create solutions best suited to their needs.
2. Proximity between the government and the governed may reduce corruption due to improved accountability and transparency. However, in some cases there is empirical evidence to the contrary as it is easier to enforce the rule of law among strangers than among neighbours and friends.
3. Decentralisation can reduce conflict, but it can also exacerbate tensions between regions if they have significantly different resource bases or incomes.
A review of experiences in six developing and transforming economies concludes that there is little evidence so far that democratic local government can do much to directly reduce poverty, at least in the short term. Of the three forms of decentralisation, political decentralisation offers the most benefits to the poor because involving civil society in planning, monitoring and evaluating public programmes and policies is crucial to ensure steady improvement. This is facilitated in a decentralised system. For appropriate forms of decentralisation to be applied to help the poor, the following points need to be taken into account:
1. The different purposes and effects of different types of decentralisation.
2. Country conditions such as size, natural resources, cultural and political composition and institutional and managerial capabilities.
3. The causes and patterns of poverty. Different types of decentralisation impact differently on poverty resulting from different causes. For example, the rural poor will not benefit if decentralisation de-links them from the country’s growth regions, and children in poverty will not benefit if decentralisation disrupts large-scale child nutrition programmes.
Tomado de: http://www.gsdrc.org/document-library/does-decentralisation-serve-the-poor/

 

DECENTRALIZATION, INEQUALITY AND POVERTY RELIEF IN CHINA
JMING LI, RAN TAO, AND DALI YANG
AUGUST 28, 2013


DECENTRALISATION AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: EXPLORING THE IMPACT
JOHANNES JÜTTING, CÉLINE KAUFFMANN, IDA MC DONNELL, HOLGER OSTERRIEDER, NICOLAS PINAUD AND LUCIA WEGNER
AUGUST 2004

La décentralisation a été recommandée par les pays donateurs et les agences de développement comme un facteur important d’incitation à une plus large participation des citoyens et à une meilleure gouvernance locale, facilitant ainsi la réduction de la pauvreté en partant de la base. Ce document de travail reconsidère cette hypothèse, en passant en revue 19 études de cas par pays disponibles dans la documentation.
Les auteurs estiment impossible d’établir un lien incontestable entre décentralisation et réduction de la pauvreté. Dans certains des pays les plus pauvres, en butte à la faiblesse des institutions et à des conflits politiques, la décentralisation, dans le contexte actuel, peut empirer la situation. C’est un élément instructif, l’impact de la décentralisation sur la pauvreté paraît moins dépendre des caractéristiques physiques d’un pays, telles que sa superficie ou la qualité de ses infrastructures, que de la capacité et de la volonté des décideurs politiques à engager un processus orienté en faveur des pauvres. Deux importantes leçons politiques se dégagent de cette étude. Premièrement, dans un environnement où l’Etat central n’assume pas totalement ses fonctions de base, la décentralisation peut être contreproductive et, partant, elle ne devrait pas être considérée par les donneurs comme une priorité. Deuxièmement, dans les pays dont les États assument les fonctions basiques, la décentralisation peut être un puissant outil au service de la réduction de la pauvreté, en améliorant l´implication des pauvres et les objectifs de la fourniture des services. Pour que ces pays récoltent pleinement les bénéfices potentiels de la décentralisation, les donateurs devraient mettre l’accent sur la fourniture d’un support technique, et améliorer la coordination de leurs politiques d’aide aussi bien au niveau local que national.

CAN LOCAL INSTITUTIONS REDUCE POVERTY? RURAL DECENTRALIZATION IN BURKINA FASO
PAULA DONNELLY-ROARK, KARIM OUEDRAOGO, XIAO YE
SEPTEMBER 2001

Results of the local level institutions (LLI) action-research study give strong evidence that high-performing local level institutions will help reduce poverty and promote equitable development. Moreover, because LLIs depend upon internalized participation rather than any cultural asset of any one country, these institutions can exist across a number of countries. Combining the qualitative and quantitative analyses, key results are as follows.
Service-asset management groups (SAMs)⎯one of three identified local level institutions⎯have been signif icant in lowering inequality. The quantitative analysis indicates that SAMs are linked with lower levels of inequality among LLI participating households, statistically significant at the 95 percent level.
SAMs are a fusion of long-standing development committees and indigenous management councils that collectively manage community assets. SAMs have combined the productivity goals of growth with the societal values of equity and solidarity.
Internalized participation is essential for SAMs to function. Evidently, only this kind of locally anchored participation can power the re-alignments and institutional revisions needed to scale -up development action.
This means that LLI/SAMs have launched their communities on an equitable growth path, and are reducing poverty with little or no outside assistance⎯all of this despite severe resource constraints. Clearly, if external development resources can augment this internal initiative and direction, the future impact can be enormous.

DECENTRALIZATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION
LORENA BECERRA AND SINZIANA POPA
2006

A recent trend in developing countries is the transfer of public finance responsibilities and policy decision-making from national to provincial and local governments. At the same time, more and more of the subnational governments are being selected through elections, which change the agency relationship between central and subnational governments. A vast amount of studies in political economy has tried to understand how decentralization and variations on its different dimensions—political, fiscal, and policy-making—have affected governments’ performance and socio-economic outcomes. Among these, recent research has highlighted several possible mechanisms through which decentralization can affect the welfare of lowincome groups. At a theoretical level, scholars have argued that decentralization helps the poor through an increase in the governments’ responsiveness, accountability and efficiency in public service delivery. They have also advanced equally plausible arguments that decentralization hurts low-income groups, because subnational governments lack the capacity to deliver public goods effectively or because public resources are “captured” by local elites and diverted towards clientelistic or personalistic purposes. This debate is yet to be resolved on the basis of empirical analyses, but measurement choices and data availability render these problematic. We discuss in detail measurement problems and engage in a preliminary empirical exercise to show that the quality and availability of data makes statistical results very sensitive to sample selection.

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION POLICY AND POVERTY REDUCTIONLESSONS FROM NIGERIA
MUSA A BANWO

This paper used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to answer three questions on fiscal decentralization policy (FDP) and its resultant impacts on poverty, using data from Nigeria. The three questions are: Does FDP share any pattern with poverty in Nigeria?, Is poverty a rationale for FDP in Nigeria?, and What are the resultant impact of FDP on poverty in Nigeria? Past studies on FDP-poverty nexus focused on the processes of FDP and most of them are descriptive. Following Barro (1990) and Skira (2006), an empirical model with twostage government was specified, estimated and interpreted accordingly. The primary measure of FDP is the share of subnational government (State and Local Governments) expenditure in the total government (Federal, State and Local governments) spending (FDP-expenditure in Nigeria. The other indicator is its analogous revenue counterpart (FDP-revenue). Data were sourced from CBN, UNDP and FOS. The study finds (among others) that, contrary to some existing evaluation of the FDP-poverty nexus elsewhere, the FDP structure in Nigeria is marred by several irregularities (due to weak institution) and thus presents an opportunity for exploitation by subnational bureaucrats and elites. Thus FDP seems to possess a potential to worsen the poverty situation in Nigeria. It is therefore suggested that while maintaining the current revenue FDP, further creation of subnational government units should be discouraged. Subnational public spending requires monitoring and scrutiny, and the federal government must ensure that FDP-compatible institutional and legal framework are put in place and functional.

DOES FISCAL FEDERALISM PROMOTE REGIONAL INEQUALITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OECD, 1980-2005
JASON SOREN

This paper explores the relationship between fiscal federalism, understood as institutionalized regional economic self-rule, and convergence in regional per capita incomes. The principal economic argument against fiscal federalism is that, unless paired with generous equalization grants, it will enhance regional inequalities by reducing inter-regional redistribution. Does the evidence support this claim? Multilevel spatial regressions on primary sub-national jurisdictions in 25 OECD countries show that lower-income regions tend to catch up to higher-income regions only when they enjoy substantial economic powers. Indeed, there is more convergence across member states of the EU than across regions within almost any of the EU members. Fiscal federalism may pose less serious tradeoffs than commonly assumed.

DECENTRALIZING ANTIPOVERTY PROGRAM DELIVERY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
PRANAB BARDHANA, DILIP MOOKHERJEE
SEPTEMBER 2004

We study the effects on accountability in government service delivery of decentralizing administration of an antipoverty program. While governments at both central and local levels are vulnerable to antipoor policy biases owing to political capture, centralized delivery systems are additionally prone to bureaucratic corruption, owing to problems in monitoring bureaucratic performance. Decentralizing the delivery system promotes cost-effectiveness and improves intraregional targeting at low program scales. But interregional targeting may deteriorate, as central grants to high-poverty regions shrink, owing to high capture of local governments by local elites in such regions.

DESCENTRALIZACIÓN TERRITORIAL EN COLOMBIA: SITUACIÓN Y PERSPECTIVAS DE POLÍTICA
ALBERTO MALDONADO COPELLO
JULIO DE 2011

Los entes territoriales en Colombia tienen la responsabilidad del acceso de la población a los servicios de educación, salud, agua potable y saneamiento básico, y por la reducción de la pobreza por necesidades básicas insatisfechas. Cuentan con recursos propios, reciben cerca del 40% de los ingresos corrientes de la Nación, reciben recursos de regalías y ejecutan el 64% de la inversión total del país.
Sin embargo, la descentralización no está alcanzando adecuadamente los resultados previstos. Aún una proporción importante de municipios y departamentos no alcanza coberturas completas en educación básica, afiliación a la seguridad social, coberturas de acueducto y alcantarillado, o en tasas de mortalidad infantil y materna, sin considerar la calidad y continuidad de los servicios. La situación es más grave cuando son receptores de regalías, donde pese a la disponibilidad de más recursos financieros, los resultados son precarios.
El modelo de descentralización creó condiciones básicas para que las entidades territoriales tuvieran un buen desempeño en los objetivos de provisión de servicios, de disminución de desigualdades territoriales y personales y de promoción de la participación ciudadana. Sin embargo, hay problemas dada la deficiente gestión de sus administraciones, lo cual está asociado a prácticas de captura de los aparatos públicos, de corrupción y de clientelismo. Por ello es necesario mejorar el esquema normativo, la gestión y los instrumentos de seguimiento y control social; precisar las competencias e impactos en sectores diferentes a educación, salud y agua potable y saneamiento básico; integrar las regalías al sistema general de participaciones; expedir el estatuto de la participación; y crear la Comisión Nacional de Ordenamiento Territorial y Descentralización.

POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
RICHARD WEBB
MAYO, 2012

We find that one-quarter of the world’s consumption poor live in urban areas and that the proportion has been rising over time. By fostering economic growth, urbanization helped reduce absolute poverty in the aggregate but did little for urban poverty. Over 1993-2002, the count o the “$1 a day” poor fell by 150 million in rural areas but rose by 50 million in urban areas. The poor have been urbanizing even more rapidly than the population as a whole. There are marked regional differences: Latin America has the most urbanized poverty problem, East Asia has the least; there has been a “ruralization” of poverty in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; in marked contrast to other regions, Africa’s urbanization process has not been associated with falling overall poverty. Looking forward, the recent pace of urbanization and current forecasts for urban population growth imply that a majority of the world’s poor will still live in rural areas for many decades to come.

NEW EVIDENCE ON THE URBANIZATION OF GLOBAL POVERTY
MARTIN RAVALLION, SHAOHUA CHEN AND PREM SANGRAULA

We find that one-quarter of the world’s consumption poor live in urban areas and that the proportion has been rising over time. By fostering economic growth, urbanization helped reduce absolute poverty in the aggregate but did little for urban poverty. Over 1993-2002, the count o the “$1 a day” poor fell by 150 million in rural areas but rose by 50 million in urban areas. The poor have been urbanizing even more rapidly than the population as a whole. There are marked regional differences: Latin America has the most urbanized poverty problem, East Asia has the least; there has been a “ruralization” of poverty in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; in marked contrast to other regions, Africa’s urbanization process has not been associated with falling overall poverty. Looking forward, the recent pace of urbanization and current forecasts for urban population growth imply that a majority of the world’s poor will still live in rural areas for many decades to come.

USING CENSUS AND SURVEY DATA TO ESTIMATE POVERTY AND INEQUALITY FOR SMALL AREAS
ALESSANDRO TAROZZI, ANGUS DEATON
MARCH 2008

Household expenditure survey data cannot yield precise estimates of poverty or inequality for small areas for which no or few observations are available. Census data are more plentiful, but typically exclude income and expenditure data. Recent years have seen a widespread use of small-area “poverty maps” based on census data enriched by relationships estimated from household surveys that predict variables not covered by the census. These methods are used to estimate putatively precise estimates of poverty and inequality for areas as small as 20,000 households. In this paper we argue that to usefully match survey and census data in this way requires a degree of spatial homogeneity for which the method provides no basis, and which is unlikely to be satisfied in practice. The relationships that are used to bridge the surveys and censuses are not structural but are projections of missing variables on a subset of those variables that happen to be common to the survey and the census supplemented by local census means appended to the survey. As such, the coefficients of the projections will generally vary from area to area in response to variables that are not included in the analysis. Estimates of poverty and inequality that assume homogeneity will generally be inconsistent in the presence of spatial heterogeneity, and error variances calculated on the assumption of homogeneity will underestimate mean squared errors and overestimate the coverage of calculated confidence intervals. We use data from the 2000 census of Mexico to construct synthetic “household surveys” and to simulate the poverty mapping process. In this context, our simulations show that while the poverty maps contain useful information, their nominal confidence intervals give a misleading idea of precision.

PONIENDO A LA POBREZA DE INGRESOS Y A LA DESIGUALDAD EN EL MAPA DE MÉXICO
MIGUEL SZÉKELY PARDO, LUIS F. LÓPEZ-CALVA, ÁLVARO MELÉNDEZ, ERICKA G. RASCÓN Y LOURDES RODRÍGUEZ-CHAMUSSY
6 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2006

El presente artículo presenta estimaciones de la pobreza de ingresos y de la desigualdad a nivel estatal y municipal para México. Esta estimación permite mapear la pobreza de ingresos, así como determinar la contribución de cada Estado y Municipio a la pobreza de ingresos nacional. Adicionalmente, facilita la medición del nivel de desigualdad en espacios geográficosdesagregados, y la descomposición de la desigualdad en términos de la proporción debida a desigualdades intra-estatales y municipales, y entre entidades federativas y municipios. Nuestras estimaciones se basan en mediciones robustas de los ingresos de los hogares, mediante el uso de metodologías que permiten resolver un dilema comúnmente presente en la medición del bienestar, el cual consiste en conciliar la existencia de información desagregable a detalle pero con baja calidad de medición, con información de alta calidad de medición pero con pocas posibilidades de desagregación geográfica.

USING REPEATED CROSS-SECTIONS TO EXPLORE MOVEMENTS IN AND OUT OF POVERTY
PETER LANJOUW, JILL LUOTO, DAVID MCKENZIE
JANUARY 2011

Movements in and out of poverty are of core interest to both policymakers and economists. Yet the measurement of such movements has been limited in many countries due to the lack of panel data. In this paper, the authors consider a method whereby repeated cross-sections of household survey data can be analyzed in such a way as to allow inferences to be made about movements in and out of poverty. Their approach builds on the methodology used to construct poverty maps. They suggest that this method lends itself also to the development of pseudo-panels which can be used to study questions about poverty duration and mobility that are of interest to policy makers but that are rarely pursued empirically due to data constraints. They illustrate that the method at best offers insights into approximate bounds of mobility, but argue that these bounds can, under ideal circumstances, be narrow enough to yield useful insights. They test how well the method works by sampling repeated cross-sections from genuine panel data sets for Vietnam and Indonesia and comparing their method to the panel estimates. The results are su1ciently encouraging to o0er the prospect of some limited, basic insights into mobility and poverty duration in settings where historically it was judged that the data necessary for such analysis were unavailable.

GUÍA SOBRE LOS NUEVOS INDICADORES DE EMPLEO DE LOS OBJETIVOS DE DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO
OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DEL TRABAJO
2009

La presente Guía sobre los Nuevos Indicadores de Empleo de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio ha sido elaborada como herramienta para el uso de los países. Provee definiciones, conceptos y cálculos para cada nuevo indicador de empleo, y es parte del apoyo de la OIT en mejorar la información sobre los mercados de trabajo a nivel nacional y su análisis para orientar diseños de políticas.

RESUMEN EJECUTIVO POBREZA Y DISPERSIÓN POBLACIONAL
INSTITUTO DEL PERÚ

El presente documentar analiza como el alejamiento y la dispersión poblacional han contribuido a la persistencia de la pobreza rural en el Perú, frustrando el acceso al mercado y la llegada de servicios estatales. La visión-sueño de un país integrado físicamente ha sido compartida por sucesivos presidentes, pero la investigación social ha dicho poco sobre el tema, y más bien ha enfatizado el poder y la dominación política como causas principales de la pobreza. La preocupación presidencial llevó a la formulación de una propuesta de investigación a través del Consejo Consultivo del Sector Público del CIES, planteándose un estudio para evaluar y documentar los presuntos obstáculos geográficos a la inclusión económica y social de la población rural.

COLOMBIA RURAL RAZONES PARA LA ESPERANZA
PNUD
2011

Hace un balance crítico de la situación actual de las zonas rurales colombianas analizando las necesidades más apremiantes de los pobladores en situación de vulnerabilidad y cuáles son sus capacidades de recuperación; cómo y por qué está concentrada la propiedad de la tierra y cuáles son los efectos de ello; de qué forma se ha ocupado y explotado el suelo; por qué el desempeño económico de este sector estratégico no ha sido el mejor; qué factores afectan el ejercicio de la democracia en los territorios; y finalmente, cuál ha sido el impacto del largo proceso de deterioro de las instituciones públicas responsables de orientar la marcha del sector agropecuario.
También realiza una propuesta hacia el logro de tres metas:
· La voluntad política y compromiso de la sociedad colombiana para equilibrar las prioridades para superar la pobreza, la desigualdad y remover algunas de las causas del conflicto.
· Optar por un modelo de desarrollo en el cual el bienestar de la gente sea el de la sostenibilidad ambiental y que promueva el fortalecimiento y la intervención oportuna del Estado.
· Incrementar las opciones de las políticas públicas.

COORDINACIÓN Y GESTIÓN TERRITORIAL DE LA POLÍTICA SOCIAL EN COLOMBIA
JUAN GONZALO ZAPATA
SEPTIEMBRE DE 2009

El documento presenta a grandes rasgos el desarrollo de la política social en Colombia; refiere los elementos centrales del proceso de financiación y planeación de las políticas públicas; sintetiza brevemente el estado actual de los principales programas que constituyen el grueso de la política social nacional y territorial y como ejemplo de la gestión y la articulación de estos programas con las autoridades territoriales se presentan algunos programas sociales. Con base en ello se presentan los principales hallazgos logrados en torno a la coincidencia de objetivos entre programas sociales nacionales y los de departamentos y municipios, se identifican los elementos que facilitan la articulación de la política social, y se resumen algunas críticas y recomendaciones de los actores de la política social frente a los programas nacionales.
A la luz de los resultados encontrados, se hace una reflexión sobre la política colombiana que establece los avances y retos de la articulación programática y coordinación entre entidades territoriales en pos del buen desarrollo de la política social, y se realizan algunas recomendaciones en tal sentido.

POVERTY ALLEVIATION UNDER FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION
M. GOVINDA RAO
This paper attempts to analyze the design and implementation of poverty alleviation strategy in a multilevel fiscal system. It is argued that antipoverty intervention strategy comprises of three sets of measures, first to provide opportunities to the poor, second empower the poor to take advantage of the opportunities and third to provide protection against vulnerability. These involve both direct and indirect anti-poverty interventions. In a multilevel fiscal system, antipoverty interventions will have to be pursued within the framework of a cooperative federalism. The paper shows that the system required to meet antipoverty interventions involves a combination of both general purpose and specific purpose transfers. While the former are necessary for ‘capacity improvement’ which helps to accelerate economic growth and impact on poverty, the latter are required to provide ‘safety net’ to the poor in the short term. The paper examines the appropriate design and implementation strategy for general purpose and specific purpose transfers.
Tomado de: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228625792_Poverty_alleviation_under_fiscal_decentralization

CONVERGENCIA Y TRAMPAS ESPACIALES DE POBREZA EN COLOMBIA: EVIDENCIA RECIENTE
MASSIMILIANO CALÌ, CARLO MENON
2012
En este trabajo se analiza la evidencia sobre convergencia regional en las dos últimas décadas. Los resultados tienden a confirmar un alto grado de persistencia en las desigualdades regionales. Estos hallazgos fueron reforzados a través del análisis de econometría espacial, donde se corroboró que hay una marcada dependencia espacial en la distribución de la pobreza en Colombia. De acuerdo con los resultados, el grado de persistencia en la pobreza es tal que el Chocó tendría un rezago en el ingreso de más de dos siglos, en relación a Bogotá.

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT RURAL POVERTY EVIDENCE FROM INDIAN DISTRICTS
MASSIMILIANO CALÌ, CARLO MENON
JANUARY 2013
Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983–1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas. The results obtained through an instrumental variable estimation suggest that this effect is causal in nature and is largely attributable to the positive spillovers of urbanization on the rural economy rather than to the movement of the rural poor to urban areas. This rural poverty-reducing effect of urbanization is primarily explained by increased demand for local agricultural products and, to a lesser extent, by urban-rural remittances, the rural land/population ratio, and rural nonfarm employment.

LOS LÍMITES DE LA DESCENTRALIZACIÓN TERRITORIAL: EL CASO DE COLOMBIA 1991- 2008
ALBERTO MALDONADO COPELLO
MARZO DE 2011
El presente trabajo examina si el proceso de descentralización territorial en Colombia ha obtenido los resultados que ofrecieron explícitamente sus promotores, observando el período que va desde 1986 hasta 2009. La investigación busca: 1) analizar el diseño del proceso de descentralización territorial en Colombia para precisar los objetivos establecidos y los instrumentos adoptados a fin de identificar las reglas de juego institucionales existentes para los actores locales; 2) examinar el cumplimiento de los objetivos de la descentralización territorial con énfasis en reducción de la pobreza por necesidades básicas insatisfechas; 3) identificar los factores explicativos de los resultados observados

LA EDUCACIÓN BÁSICA Y MEDIA EN COLOMBIA: RETOS EN EQUIDAD Y CALIDAD
MARTHA DELGADO BARRERA
ENERO DE 2014
El presente trabajo hace un balance de la evolución reciente del sistema educativo colombiano en los niveles de educación preescolar, básica y media, e identifica los principales retos que enfrenta para avanzar en materia de cobertura, equidad y calidad. Se consideran también posibles opciones de política para mejorar el desempeño general del sector en esas áreas y reducir las brechas sociales y poblacionales existentes.

¿QUIÉN SE BENEFICIA DE LOS PROGRAMAS SOCIALES EN COLOMBIA? ANÁLISIS DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA MULTIDIMENSIONAL
ROBERTO CARLOS ANGULO SALAZAR, NATALIE GÓMEZ ARTEAGA, RENATA PARDO PINZÓN
OCTUBRE, 2012
El presente documento analiza el impacto de un conjunto de programas sociales sobre la pobreza multidimensional en Colombia. Los programas sociales analizados son aquellos que guardan relación con cuatro dimensiones del Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional (IPM): educación, salud, primera infancia y vivienda. El análisis se centra en tres aspectos: i) la incidencia de los programas sociales, ii) la eficiencia de su focalización y iii) su efecto sobre la magnitud de la pobreza multidimensional. Los resultados de incidencia indican que los beneficios de los programas sociales se han asignando progresivamente. Los beneficiarios han sido aquellos que se ubican en los quintiles de población con mayor proporción de privaciones. En general, el conjunto de programas sociales analizados contribuye significativamente a la reducción de la pobreza multidimensional. En ausencia de estas intervenciones la pobreza habría sido 22 puntos porcentuales más alta que la estimada oficialmente para el año 2010 (53.3% vs. 30.4%). Entre los programas sociales, el régimen subsidiado es el que más contribuye a la reducción de la pobreza multidimensional, mientras que los programas de vivienda son los tienen el menor impacto.

ÍNDICE DE POBREZA MULTIDIMENSIONAL PARA COLOMBIA (IPM-COLOMBIA) 1997-2010
ROBERTO ANGULO SALAZAR, BEATRIZ DÍAZ CUERVO, RENATA PARDO PINZÓN
OCTUBRE, 2011
Este artículo presenta el Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional de Colombia (IPMColombia), una iniciativa del Departamento Nacional de Planeación basada en la metodología de Alkire y Foster (AF) (2007, 2011a). La metodología propuesta para Colombia se compone de cinco dimensiones: condiciones educativas del hogar, condiciones de la niñez y la juventud, salud, trabajo, y acceso a los servicios públicos domiciliarios y las condiciones de la vivienda. El índice utiliza una estructura de ponderación anidada, en la que cada dimensión tiene el mismo peso y cada variable tiene el mismo peso al interior de cada dimensión. Los resultados del Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional indican que la pobreza multidimensional en Colombia se redujo entre 1997 y 2010. Del análisis de los indicadores por zona urbana y rural se puede concluir que a pesar de la reducción en todas las medidas de pobreza multidimensional, persisten grandes desequilibrios. Así mismo, se observan grandes diferencias regionales. En cuanto a la brecha y severidad de la pobreza multidimensional se observa una mayor reducción en la severidad, lo que sugiere que la reducción de la pobreza de alguna manera se ha podido ir a los más pobres. Adicionalmente, este documento presenta algunas aplicaciones del IPM-Colombia con fines de política pública.

ANÁLISIS ESPACIAL DEL ÍNDICE DE POBREZA MULTIDIMENSIONAL MUNICIPAL PARA COLOMBIA(2005)
ROBERTO ANGULO, FRANCISCO ALVARADO, RENATA PARDO, YOLANDA RIVEROS
2005
El documento realiza un análisis espacial del IPM municipal, aprovechando las herramientas que brinda la metodología de análisis espacial exploratorio de datos (ESDA) (por sus siglas en inglés), para así detectar la existencia de autocorrelación espacial en el territorio Colombiano y sus diferentes regiones, con respecto a la pobreza multidimensional, así como reunir evidencia que permita identificar clústeres de municipios con características similares de la Incidencia de la pobreza multidimensional, o con características disímiles, que evidencien la existencia de focos de desigualdad municipal, en términos de esta medida de pobreza.

CAPÍTULO 4: ÍNDICE DE POBREZA MULTIDIMENSIONAL EN NIÑOS, NIÑAS Y ADOLESCENTES (IPM‐N): NUESTRA PROPUESTA
SANDRA GARCÍA, JUAN PABLO MOSQUERA Y TOMÁS MARTÍN
2012
El propósito principal del capítulo es describir en detalle la etapa de identificación de la pobreza, es decir, qué condiciones debe cumplir un niño, niña o adolescente para ser considerado en condición de pobreza multidimensional.
El Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional en Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes (IPM‐N) se basa en la metodología propuesta por Alkire y Foster (Alkire & Foster, 2007, 2011). Esta metodología tiene dos etapas fundamentales: la primera es acordar una definición que permita identificar quiénes están en condición de pobreza; la segunda consiste en agregar la información para estimar no solamente cuántas personas están en condición de pobreza sino además qué tan pobres son los pobres. Mientras la primera etapa incluye definiciones tanto técnicas como morales (el punto de corte donde la sociedad decide considerar a un individuo en situación de pobreza), la segunda etapa es meramente técnica y no requiere de mayor discusión pues son estimaciones estandarizadas dados los parámetros que se desprenden de la definición de pobreza.

DESIGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE
RICARDO PAES DE BARROS, FRANCISCO H.G. FERREIRA, JOSE R. MOLINAS VEGA, JAIME SAAVEDRA CHANDUVI
2008
A lo largo de la última década, el crecimiento más acelerado y una política social más inteligente han revertido la tendencia en la pobreza de América Latina. Todavía en forma muy lenta y escasa pero muy evidente, el porcentaje de latinos pobres ha empezado a disminuir. Esto ha llevado los debates políticos y de políticas desde la pobreza hacia la inequidad, lo cual se puede esperar en una región que muestra la distribución de resultados del desarrollo (como ingreso, propiedad de la tierra y logros educativos) más regresiva del mundo. Este libro es una revelación en la medición de la oportunidad humana. Construye sofisticadas fórmulas para responder una pregunta más bien simple: ¿Cuánto influyen las circunstancias personales en el acceso de los niños a servicios básicos necesarios para una vida productiva? De más está decir que la creación de una metodología para medir la oportunidad humana y su aplicación en diversos países de una región es sólo un primer paso. Por un lado, continuarán las discusiones técnicas y validaciones científicas y con seguridad será necesario afinar el método. Por otro lado, aplicar la nueva herramienta a un solo país permitirá hacer los ajustes necesarios para que los resultados sean mucho más útiles a sus realidades de políticas. Asimismo, se podrían generar fascinantes lecciones comparativas al medir la oportunidad humana en los países desarrollados, como en todo Estados Unidos o en las naciones de Europa. Pero el principal mensaje de este libro es potente en sí mismo: es posible convertir la equidad en un propósito central del desarrollo, y por qué no, en su misma definición. Ese sea quizás su principal aporte.
Tomado de: http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/314801468276879155/Midiendo-la-desigualdad-de-oportunidades-en-America-Latina-y-el-Caribe

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONVERGENCE IN COLOMBIA
VICENTE ROYUELA, GUSTAVO ADOLFO GARCÍA
2010
GDP has usually been used as a proxy for human well-being. Nevertheless, other social aspects should also be considered, such as life expectancy, infant mortality, educational enrolment and crime issues. With this paper we investigate not only economic convergence but also social convergence between regions in a developing country, Colombia, in the period 1975-2005. We consider several techniques in our analysis: sigma convergence, stochastic kernel estimations, and also several empirical models to find out the beta convergence parameter (cross section and panel estimates, with and without spatial dependence). The main results confirm that we can talk about convergence in Colombia in key social variables, although not in the classic economic variable, GDP per capita. We have also found that spatial autocorrelation reinforces convergence processes through deepening market and social factors, while isolation condemns regions to nonconvergence.

COLOMBIA DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO RECIENTE EN INFRAESTRUCTURA – BALANCEANDO LAS NECESIDADES SOCIALES Y PRODUCTIVAS DE INFRAESTRUCTURA
GERMÁN OSPINA
SEPTIEMBRE 1, 2004
Este documento apunta a una evaluación del sector de gas natural en Colombia y para hacer un análisis en el marco del informe de proyecto final (REDI), tiene en cuenta factores de análisis de toma de decisiones, y medidas de gestión, tanto de gobierno como de regulación. El documento también analiza el mercado colombiano del gas natural, con respecto a activos y quiebras.
Tomado de: http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/304821468027602197/Colombia-Desarrollo-economico-reciente-en-infrastructura-balanceando-las-necesidades-sociales-y-productivas-de-la-infraestructura

GEOGRAPHY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN COLOMBIA A MUNICIPAL APPROACH
FABIO SÁNCHEZ TORRES, JAIRO NÚÑEZ MÉNDEZ
JUNE 2000
The object of this paper is to determine the relationship between geographical variables and income per capita, income per capita growth, population density and population growth in Colombian municipalities. In order to carry out econometric estimations at the municipal level we constructed a set of geographical variables based on soil, climate and road maps. We obtained some other geographical variables from the Colombian Institute of Geography (IGAC) homogeneous zone statistics.
We found that geography affects both the level of municipal income per capita and its growth, being responsible for between 36% and 47% of the variance in municipal income per capita, and between 35% and 40% of the variance in municipal income per capita growth. It was established that, among the geographic variables, distance to domestic markets and soil type exercise the greatest influence on income per capita and its growth. Furthermore, geographical variables seem to be more significant for poor municipalities than rich ones. In poor municipalities, geography is responsible for between 25% and 32% of income per capita variance, and between 24% and 27% of income per capita growth variance. In contrast, in rich municipalities, geography is less important, being responsible for between 18% and 25% of income per capita variance and between 16% and 17% of income per capita growth variance. Thus, geography affects income and income growth via the productivity of the land, the availability of natural resources (such as water and rivers), the presence of tropical diseases, and agglomeration.
Although geography influences the fate of a region, that is not the end of the story. Human factors, both public policy and private intervention, also play an important role. Education, infrastructure and more efficient public institutions can boost regional economic growth, and can help poor regions to overcome the poverty trap of low income and low economic growth.

INEQUIDAD REGIONAL EN COLOMBIA
DARWIN CORTÉS, JUAN F. VARGAS
2012
Este documento hace un diagnostico multidimensional de las brechas regionales que existen en Colombia a nivel departamental y de su persistencia en el tiempo. Así mismo se estudian las causas de la inequidad regional. La evidencia presentada sugiere que las diferencias institucionales de largo plazo explican las desigualdades regionales actuales. Para el diagnóstico se utiliza un conjunto amplio de variables socioeconómicas incluyendo variables de ingreso y actividad económica, variables de capital humano, medidas de pobreza y desigualdad, variables de comportamiento político, variables de aislamiento geográfico, y variables de esfuerzo o dependencia fiscal. El documento también revisa algunas experiencias internacionales exitosas en la disminución de brechas regionales y plantea algunas sugerencias de política pública para el caso colombiano.

POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH DISPOSSESSION THE MILK BOOM AND THE RETURN OF THE ELITE IN SANTO TOMÁS, NICARAGUA
HELLE MUNK RAVNBORG, LIGIA IVETTE GÓMEZ
2014
Ideally, poverty indicators improve because poor people’s livelihoods are improved. They can, however, also improve because poor people are expelled from the territory. This article explores the case of the cattle region of Chontales, Nicaragua, which during 1998–2005 experienced economic growth and declining poverty rates, spurred by investments and organizational development. The article argues that in the absence of pro-poor coalitions, these investments facilitated the return and strengthening of the local elite and that the observed decline in poverty rates emerges as the result of dispossession and subsequent exodus of the poor rather than of inclusive economic growth.

GENDER SYSTEMS AND WOMEN’S LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION IN THE SALMON INDUSTRY IN CHILOÉ, CHILE
EDUARDO RAMÍREZ, RUERD RUBEN
2014
This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloe, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women’s participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these systems reflect the territory’s demographic and agrarian history and that local gender systems have a positive influence on women’s participation in the labor market, though this is not accompanied by decreased salary discrimination in the salmon industry. The implication is that territory-specific and gender factors must be considered in national employment policies.

CITIES, TERRITORIES, AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH: UNRAVELING URBAN–RURAL LINKAGES IN CHILE, COLOMBIA, AND MEXICO
JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ, FERNANDO CARRIAZO, BENJAMÍN JARA, FÉLIX MODREGO, ISIDRO SOLOAGA
2015
We explore the effects of the growing urbanization of rural areas in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico and investigate whether the presence of small- and medium-sized cities within rural–urban territories enhances economic growth and reduces poverty and income inequality compared to deep-rural and metropolitan territories. For Chile and Colombia, our results suggest that these urban centers can make a greater contribution to the rate of economic growth and poverty reduction in rural–urban territories compared to deep-rural ones, but in some cases with a rise in income inequality. The mechanisms through which urban centers affect the dynamics of territorial development are country-specific.

EXTRATERRITORIAL INVESTMENTS, ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS, AND COLLECTIVE ACTION IN LATIN AMERICA
PABLO OSPINA PERALTA, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON, PATRIC HOLLENSTEIN, ILANA NUSSBAUM, EDUARDO RAMÍREZ
2015
A growing number of extraterritorial private-sector actors, often in partnership with the state, are expanding the frontiers of extractive and primary export economies to new rural territories in Latin America. This paper analyzes the conditions that might drive meaningful efforts to address environmental problems in territories dominated by large, externally controlled natural resource-based activities. It studies three cases: salmon aquaculture in Chiloe (Chile), fruit growing in O’Higgins (Chile), and gas production in Tarija (Bolivia). We conclude that such efforts are unlikely to occur unless environmental problems directly threaten the short-term viability of the activities or social movements emerge to demand change.

A LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS IN LATIN AMERICA
FÉLIX MODREGO, JULIO A. BERDEGUÉ
2015
This paper summarizes a study of changes in per-capita income, monetary poverty, and income distribution in 9,045 subnational administrative units of nine Latin American countries between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. The results largely support spatial convergence of mean household incomes, although the estimates indicate it has been slow. Territorial inequality is found to be persistent and reduces the pro-poor effect of local income growth. Although national-context specific, the estimates also indicate that territorial development dynamics are influenced by the structural features of the territories. In view of the evidence, territorial development policies in Latin America seem well warranted.

TRAMPAS TERRITORIALES DE POBREZA, DESIGUALDAD E INMOVILIDAD SOCIAL: LOS CASOS DE CHILE, MÉXICO Y PERÚ
ANDRÉS TOMASELLI, ANTHONY BEBBINGTON, ISIDRO SOLOAGA, JAVIER ESCOBAL
2002

QUESTIONING TERRITORIAL COHESION (UN)EQUAL ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST
JIRÍ MALÝ
2016
Although the debates about access to services of general interest have been at the core of the EU territorial cohesion discourse since the late 1990s, the impact of unequal accessibility to living conditions has yet be the subject of close inspection. The paper examines the relationship between the accessibility of services of general interest and demographic and socio-economic conditions in a specific Czech region. The analysis reveals inter-municipal disparities and identifies spatially excluded areas. Despite the negative association of insufficient access with education and depopulation characteristics, the results suggest that demographic and socio-economic development stems from a more complex set of factors.

CO-CREATING THE URBAN FUTURE – THE AGENDA OF METROPOLISES, CITIES AND TERRITORIES
UCLG
2016
This Chapter of the UCLG Gold Report IV Co-creating the Urban Future: The Agenda for Metropolises, Cities, and Territories describes the Intermediary Cities: The Nexus Between the Local and the Global system of cities. It provides the key definitions necessary for a thorough analysis of the phenomenon of i-cities, and their place in the broader picture of urbanization in an increasingly globalized and complex world. Section 2 investigates in detail the concept of intermediary cities through analysis of their main facets. This includes: their scale, functions, location and connectivity; the distinctive governance and financial architecture they have developed to preserve their role in national urban systems; the role of urban planning and design to promote and protect their sustainability; the specific role they play in local economic development, with a focus on the rural-urban linkages they help foster; and the potential benefits they can reap from investment in identity, technology, and equality. Section 3 examines i-cities in the different regional contexts across the world. Finally, Section 4 concludes this chapter with a series of recommendations and key messages for i-cities, and how they can actively contribute to today’s global development and urban agendas, with a particular focus on the aforementioned New Urban Agenda.
Tomado de: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Co-creating-the-Urban-Future-The-Agenda-for-Metropolises-Cities-and-Territories

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016 – STRUCTURAL AND RURAL TRANSFORMATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

2016
This chapter looks at the structural and rural transformations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) during the first decade of the twenty-first century, focusing on the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, which account for 94 per cent of the rural population of LAC.
These countries underwent a vast rural transformation in the second half of the twentieth century, but most had four features in common: spatial integration as functional rural-urban territories formed where the majority of the rural population lives, diversification of rural economies from agriculture, transformation of agrifood systems and value chains under the dominance of corporations, and a blurring of the cultural distance between rural and urban youth owing to rural roads and communications technologies (Berdegué et al. 2014).
These factors have influenced each other in multiple ways, and are both causes and consequences of the structural and rural shifts. The old rural and fundamentally agrarian societies have been replaced by new types of rural societies, in which agriculture is still important but no longer predominant.
By focusing on roughly the fi rst decade of this century, we discuss the advanced stages of the two transformations of a still-developing region. Here, rural inequality remains extremely high, rural societies have already undergone tremendous change, and family farming has survived the shock of very rapid – and in some cases radical – liberalization, and yet keeps on contributing to the rural economy and to society at large.
Our findings are consistent with the main hypotheses of this report, namely that all countries(except Bolivia) that have reduced rural poverty faster than the region as a whole have also experienced rapid structural or rural transformation,or both, but that not all countries that undergo a transformation cut rural poverty rapidly. Every country with rapid rural poverty reduction has also narrowed rural income inequality faster than the regional average, except Chile.
These fi ndings can be interpreted to suggest that it is very diffi cult to reduce rural poverty quickly without rapid structural change in societies, but that such transformation by itself does not guarantee fast poverty reduction. Our findings do not support the oft-heard claim that the recent transformations of rural societies are anti-rural poor. Nor do they support the view that, if we transform the rural and national economies (and add social protection), poverty will automatically fall. What our analysis shows, instead, is that transformation and smart rural development policies are both needed if rapid rural poverty reduction is a national goal.
However, only three countries managed to do better than the regional average in all three dimensions of our analysis (structural and rural transformations and social inclusion). Why are they not doing better, as are countries in other regions that are less advanced along the transformation curve? Three proximate factors appear to be at play: in most countries, agriculture has not increased its productivity fast enough, other sectors of the economy have not generated enough high-productivity jobs, and rural economic growth and social-inclusion processes remain highly concentrated in certain territories, resulting in low rural poverty elasticities of growth.
The analysis of this region over this period is useful from an international perspective for at least two reasons: fi rst, LAC allows us to see how structural changes in societies, at large, and in rural societies, in particular, can coexist with social exclusion, and that deep and rapid economic change does not always bring about development for all. Second, LAC can mirror the transitions in other developing regions, considering that over the past 30 years most of the LAC countries moved several steps up the scale towards becoming high-income and low rural poverty nations. As countries in other developing regions are undergoing the changes that LAC has already undergone, they may wish to review insights from LAC.

EXPLAINING SPATIAL DIVERSITY IN LATIN AMERICAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURES, INSTITUTIONS, AND COALITIONS
JULIO A. BERDEGUE, JAVIER ESCOBAL AND ANTHONY BEBBINGTON
2014
This article summarizes the results of a research program conducted in 11 Latin America countries, addressing two questions: (1) what factors determine territorial development dynamics that lead to economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved income distribution? (2) What can be done to stimulate this kind of territorial dynamics? We highlight five “bundles of factors” that we found in 19 case studies of territorial development, as well as the role of social territorial coalitions that appear to be necessary for territorial dynamics that lead to economic growth with social inclusion. The article calls for territorial development policies to complement sectoral policies.

THE IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY
JOSHUA GRAFF ZIVIN AND MATTHEW NEIDELL
2012

WHAT DETERMINES PRODUCTIVITY?
CHAD SYVERSON
2011

INFLEXIBLE PRICES AND PROCYCLICAL PRODUCTIVITY
JULIO J. ROTEMBERG AND LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS
1990

URBAN SCALING AND THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION FOR CITIES
JOSÉ ́ LOBO, LUI ́S M. A. BETTENCOURT, DEBORAH STRUMSKY, GEOFFREY B. WEST
2012

THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY OF URBAN AREAS: DISENTANGLING GENERAL SCALE EFFECTS FROM LOCAL EXCEPTIONALITY
JOSÉ LOBO, LUÍS M. A. BETTENCOURT, DEBORAH STRUMSKY, GEOFFREY B. WEST
2011

RACIAL MIX AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY
OMER R. GALLE, CANDACE HINSON WISWELL AND JEFFREY A. BURR
1985

PRODUCTIVITY AND SOCIAL INDICATORS
KRISHNAMURTI CHANDRASEKAR
1981

SPECIFIC PRODUCTIVITY
WALTER M. ADRIANCE
1914

PRODUCTIVITY DIFFERENCES
DARON ACEMOGLU AND FABRIZIO ZILIBOTTI
MAY, 2001

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT
GLEN WEISBROD , ARLEE RENO
OCTOBER 2009

AGGLOMERATION AND HOURS WORKED
STUART S. ROSENTHAL AND WILLIAM C. STRANGE
2008

SEARCH, SORTING, AND URBAN AGGLOMERATION
CHRISTOPHER H. WHEELER
2001

URBANIZATION AND GROWTH
MICHAEL SPENCE, PATRICIA CLARKE ANNEZ, ROBERT M. BUCKLEY
2009

CITIES AND SKILLS
EDWARD L. GLAESER AND DAVID C. MARÉ
2001

URBAN DECLINE AND DURABLE HOUSING
EDWARD L. GLAESER AND JOSEPH GYOURKO
2005

ARE CITIES DYING?
EDWARD L. GLAESER
1998

GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION AS A DYNAMIC PROCESS
GUY DUMAIS, GLENN ELLISON AND EDWARD L. GLAESER
2002

NATIONAL URBAN POLICY FRAMEWORK
MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
2012

CLUSTERS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION
AARON CHATTERJI, EDWARD GLAESER, AND WILLIAM KERR
2014

POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
GARY S. BECKER, EDWARD L. GLAESER AND KEVIN M. MURPHY
1999

JOHANNESBURG 2030: THE ECONOMIC CONTOURS OF A “LINKING GLOBAL CITY”
CHRISTIAN M. ROGERSON AND JAYNE M. ROGERSON
2015

WORK AND LEISURE IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE: WHY SO DIFFERENT?
ALBERTO ALESINA, EDWARD GLAESER AND BRUCE SACERDOTE
2005

PRODUCTIVITY AND THE DENSITY OF HUMAN CAPITAL
JAISON R. ABEL, ISHITA DEY, TODD M. GABE
2012

DETERMINANTS OF CITY GROWTH IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
APRIL 2015

DETERMINANTS OF CITY GROWTH IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
APRIL 2015

¿POR QUÉ CHIAPAS ES POBRE?
DAN LEVY, RICARDO HAUSMANN, MIGUEL ANGEL SANTOS, LUIS ESPINOZA Y MIGUEL FLORES
MARCH 2016

AGGLOMERATION EFFECTS IN COLOMBIA
GILLES DURANTON
AUGUST 2015